The paper is focused on the possibility of introduction of «post-photography» (identified often as digital photography) as visual images of a new type that testify appearance, development, and functioning of network communities. It is supposed that postphotography understood as a set of special communicating processes becomes a new perspective for social (cultural) anthropology which aims at studying the new type of social connectedness.
The number of creative spaces in St. Petersburg is constantly increasing, and their activities influence more and more the formation of the urban cultural environment. Creative spaces become locations for various events (cultural and educational), contribute to the formation of new educational and cultural territory products. In this connection it becomes relevant to analyze the development of educational services that provide creative entrepreneurs – residents of creative spaces. This trend is, on the one hand, a response to the online educational platforms (Coursera, edX, Universarium et al.), that provide educational services of high level in a virtual way, and on the other hand, it makes possible to develop new formats – quests, role play, different types of activity-related courses. Also, there is another research problem: whether educational projects of creative entrepreneurs replace traditional institutions of further education of adults and school children or close new niches? The article is devoted to the study of these issues
Roland Barthes’ works on cinema remain insufficiently understood. The aim of the present article is to reconstruct his theory of cinema, focusing on semiotic issues and tracing its development in the general evolution of his thoughts from so called pre-structuralist to the structuralist period. I set to analyze well-known articles from the book “Mythologies” (1957), as weak as some little-known ones that have not been translated in Russian, such as the voice-over for the film “Sport and Men”, a review of Mario Ruspoli’s film “The Strangers of the Earth”, an answer about James Bond et al. The assumption is that in the first period the analysis of films consisted mainly of debunking the myths of mass culture, which did not imply the creation of an integral theory of cinema. At the same time, the mythology model became the starting point for his “semiology of the film image”. Faced with a number of difficulties in applying the linguistic methodology to the analysis of films, he left the further development of this project and did not create a structuralist cinema theory. In the early 1960s, he returned to the mythological issues in cinema, its sociology and politics, which can be seen, for example, in his collaboration with Canadian documentary filmmakers.
The concept of historical reenactment is considered in the article as a form of post-memory implementation with the help of conventional theatricalization, which has many elements of the theatrical process: a development of action scenarios, a selection of appropriate natural or architectural scenery, a distribution of roles among the participants, a creation of individual appearance of each character, a coordination of behavioral patterns as a form of historical representation. Thus, there is the thesis that the “new reality” of reenactors is formed through the merging of several other ones - present, past and theatrical realities. At the same time, theatrical reality means a combination of “legends” of recreated characters that justify the choice of costumes, equipment, define the status of participants and set behavioral models.
The role of the reenactment movement in the materialization of post-memory is also substantiated in the article. It happens through the formation of the “reality of past times” by reenactors. This reality is perceived through physical experience associated with the creation and usage of material artifacts, whether it is the production and usage of weapons, military uniforms, household accessories; mastering crafts and leisure activities in the camp. It is emphasized that the question of reliability of materials and artifacts is on the first place among reenactors. Moreover, visible elements of artifacts are equally important as the elements which usually remain invisible to the public.
The article also presents some results of the study, conducted by the authors. The research includes more than 30 clubs of historical reenactment. During the research it has been found that all of them carry out the reenactment of military events; a significant part of them performs a gastronomic reenactment which reflects the gastronomic models of the corresponding epoch; regardless of the reconstructed epoch, organizational and legal form, clubs conduct educational activity that defers depending on the reconstructed epoch by the format and nature of knowledge and skills that participants receive. According to this information, the authors concluded that the clubs of historical reenactment not only carry out the theatricalization and materialization of nostalgia, but also form the post-memory in which it is based.
Rationalist painting as one of the leading art movements of the Chinese vanguard art plays an important role in the art development process in the mid- 1980s in China. The origins of the formation of Rationalist painting are directly related to the Hermeneutics school, whereby the Chinese artists were able to get acquainted with the philosophical and theoretical materials of Western philosophers of modernism and postmodernism, as well as the basics of contemporary art in Western Europe and America. Analyzing the problem of the definition of «rational» for the artists of the Chinese vanguard art, as well as examining the origins of that art movement formation, enable to define ideological, conceptual, artistic and aesthetic specifics of Rationalist painting in China in the mid’80s of the XX century.
The article is devoted to the formation of the image of the pre-revolutionary history of Russia on the example of Yuri Tarich's film Wings of Serf (1926). In the first post-revolutionary decade, there was a departure from previous standards in the image of national history. Authors searched for new forms of screen representations of past events. Although the film inherits the tradition of depicting the king as a murderer and tyrant, the creators – director Yuri Tarich and screenwriter Victor Shklovsky – tried to transfer on screen revolutionary understanding of history. The film is influenced
by historical theory of Mikhail Pokrovsky, and Shklovsky introduced the economic element in the scenario as the main engine of the plot.
The avant-garde figures who came to cinema (Shklovsky, first of all, was a literary critic) came up with the rules of screenwriting craft on the go and challenged the boundaries of cinema's possibilities in practice. The purpose of Wings of Serf’s screenplay was to move away from the one-sided image of Ivan the Terrible and determine his actions as of economic basis. Shklovsky and Tarich developed the idea of the revolutionary remaking of the image of the past in their next work, the film version of Captain's Daughter.
The article covers the history of foreign screenings of Wings of Serf, focusing on the history of censorship bans and re-editing of the film for USA. The author shows in the article the possible influence of Wings of Serf on Ivan the Terrible by Sergei Eisenstein, which is implicitly present in both artistic and plot terms.
Despite success and foreign distribution, the movie was visually traditional, realistic, and researchers considered, most often, as the prologue before radical change of the relation to Ivan the Terrible in the thirties. The article shows how filmmakers of the first decade after the revolution used to work with historical material.
The history of the development of cultural (initially socio-cultural) geography in the USSR is the main topic of the article. It has appeared in 1930-1940s without any regard to both the Russian school of anthropogeography and the emerging C. Sauer tradition in cultural landscape studies. The attempts to establish cultural geography within Soviet geography in 1940-1980s are described. The main reasons of establishment, conceptual framework and unique features of ‘humanitarian geography’, newly established in Post-Soviet Russia, are revealed. The comparison of this original Russian school and the leading Western concepts like geosophy, geographical epistemology, new cultural geography, humanistic geography is executed.
Luddites is a historical term used to describe a type of artisan, lost their guild status, economic independence and position in the course of the industrial revolution. Perm case allows us to apply the term to a situation of mass introduction of cultural industries in the modern city. In modern society, Gallery is a specialized factory for the production of art. It organizes artistic activity of people of art, develops rules for distinguishing art, creates a center of attraction for artists, their agents and producers. Similar functions are performed by modern theaters, museums, book fairs and exhibition centers. The paper presents an analysis of resistance practices that the local branch of the Union of Artists of Russia, some writers and journalists met with the development of the project in the Perm Museum of Modern Art PERMM and support program for cultural
|1 (26) 2017| © Издательство «Эйдос», 2017. Только для личного использования. © Publishing House EIDOS, 2017. For Private Use Only. Международный журнал исследований культуры International Journal of Cultural Research www.culturalresearch.ru Содержание / Table of Contents Тема номера / Topic of the Issue КУЛЬТУРНЫЕ ИНДУСТРИИ / CULTURAL INDUSTRIES Андрей Николаевич КАБАЦКОВ / Andrey Nikolaevich KABATSKOV | Луддиты в современной культурной индустрии. Пермский кейс / Luddites in Modern Cultural Industry. Perm Case | 82 industries. Displaying the birth of public skirmishes in the press, the ideology of resistance to cultural invasion. The core of the resistance ideology was the idea of the construction of the local territorial identity, spiritual identity and traditions of the mining civilization storage (Ivanov). This allowed the opposition to present a cosmopolitan conflict, businessmen and the keepers of folk traditions. The reason for the defeat of bearers is a disability to mobilize citizens. Relegating them to the role of spectators, and the power of the initiators of the cultural changes turned them into the crowd of onlookers in no one's own social position. As a result of the defeat of “Perm cultural project” Luddites were able to celebrate a victory (in contrast to their British predecessors), and creative industries were compromised.
This article is an attempt to describe international cinema discourse that has developed over the last decades around the events of the break-up of Yugoslavia through the notion of “cultural trauma”.
In the first part of the article theoretical foundation of cultural trauma and some of its related terms (collective memory) are considered. On the basis of theoretical overview, in the second part of the article we build an analysis of the five post-Yugoslavian films, created in the period of the break-up of Yugoslavia and after it. The analysis of these screen-culture works is intended to give an idea about the international discourse, built around the break-up of Yugoslavia, and the role of the Yugoslavian cinematograph in its formation. Moreover, the article tracks the dynamics in the change of film narrations and portrayal from the earlier to the most modern ones.
In this article, the author tries to determine the ratio of official and unofficial culture in relation to the work of nonconformist artists. The author is interested in the question related to the causes of the emergence of nonconformism, which originated in the bowels of official Soviet art, and has become over time a kind of intellectual consolation and an alternative language of speaking in Soviet cultural discourse. Soviet experience shows that the experience of resistance through art for informal intellectuals could be to some extent effective.
The author considers existing definitions of nonconformism and practice of conceptualization of this phenomenon, about which there are discussions, up to the present time.
The article deals with the problem of information overload in culture, its effects on the different aspects of culture, and cultural dynamics. There is no single definition of this concept, but you can construct it from the contemporary research. The article puts forward the idea that information overload exists in the culture of all times, and human adaptation to it is associated with the emergence and spread of various forms of cultural existence. However, information overload is actively problematized in science only at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The article analyzes the study background of the information overload among philosophers and sociologists of technology, researchers of culture of the first half of the 20th century. This study background is associated with the problems of technological reproduction of cultural objects, the development of mass culture, mass media, etc. The article presents an overview of the main directions of the study of information overload from inception to the modern stage. Firstly, it is a cybernetic approach to the study of communication, which is presented today in the range of quantitative research of the various social networks, as well as an analysis of "big data". Secondly, it is the psychological and neurophysiological studies of information overload, which have undergone significant changes over the half-century, opening new data on the work of the human brain. This is also the direction of "health literacy", studied the impact of information overload on the health of patients. Thirdly, it is the social and art studies of information overload, which gradually develop in the 21st century, taking over from the applied research in the field of management and marketing, developed in the late 20th century. At the end the ideas about what research in the field of information overload may be interesting in the future are presented.
The article is aimed at analysis of the process of development of the Polish discourse of memory at the turn of XVIII-XIX centuries, i.e., in the period immediately following the Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanin Commonwealth in the late XVIIIth century. The main tools of analysis are the psychoanalytic approach to culture, based on the concepts of trauma and mourning, as well as the theory of discourse by M. Foucault in its contemporary interpretation. The discourse of memory is interpreted as a response of Polish culture to the trauma of the Partitions which threatened the Polish national identity. After the Partitions there were several options for the future development of Polish memory and identity. The choice of any of them meant the choice of definition of a meta-object of discourse of memory, that is the answer to the question of what it was relevant to. One of the options was the "antiquarian discourse" of memory of the Commonwealth and the Polish people, which, subsequent to the Partitions, no longer existed. In other words, it was about the need to create a positive image of the Polish civilization for descendants who will consider it as one of the disappeared civilizations of the past. However, this form of reflection on memory did not become dominant in the Polish culture of the Partition period. The main direction of development of the Polish discourse of memory was the reflection on the memory of the Polish people, which continued to exist and needed historical consciousness for themselves. This option, in its turn, contained two possible directions of development. One of them meant development of a discourse of memory based on the political history of the Commonwealth and the need for its restitution. Another option was to appeal to the Slavic pagan pre-state origins, which had to be saved from oblivion and returned to the Polish people. In the process of discussing all these options and models, Polish culture created such a discourse of memory, in which many questions relevant to contemporary memory studies (memory and identity, memory and forgetting in culture, memory politics, memory institutions, memory and historiography, etc.) were posed. Development of discourse of memory was associated at that time with creation of various cultural institutions and practices that played a significant role in the development of the Polish national identity.
There are two factors influencing on representation of revolutionary events of 1917 in the popular TV-series in the post-Soviet Russia. First, it is the negative revaluation of revolution which took place in public discussions of the 1990th when both the dominating elite, and opposition expressed equally negative relation to this event. Subsequently this position was then developed in historical policy of Vladimir Putin who, though having proclaimed the doctrine of the “total continuity” (connecting pre-revolutionary, Soviet, and democratic values), has been never hiding suspicious attitude toward the October revolution. For mass culture this meant permission to include “dark sides” of the history of revolution in popular narratives, that was impossible during the Soviet period (for example, the facts of cooperation of Bolsheviks with criminals). Secondly, the “popular cultural memory” about revolution created by means of Soviet feature films had paradoxically the contradictory character as well as
initiated a number of reinterpretations of this event in post-Soviet cinema of the 1990-2010th. Soviet films represent revolution as, first of all, a civil war made for the sake of the future, for the sake of a new society and implementation of the revolutionary ideals. “Memory of revolution” in this case was consciously constructed with emphasis on its “validating” function which was necessary for legitimization of the current political situation in the Soviet state. Such films were made generally during the 1930th – 1950th. In the period of the “Thaw” some films proposed different approaches to revolution, and many of them were not permitted to screen until the 1980th. The different film versions of revolution became available for a wide audience beginning from the middle of the 1980th, when the year 1917 was represented as a changeable, illusive and ambiguous “place of memory”. In the article the character and content of TV-representations of revolution created during the post-Soviet period in the context of wider “policy of identity” are analyzed.
Long shadow of the past (in the words of Aleida Assmann) darken the present, affecting our views, values, behavior. Cultural memory intertwined with social memory (for example, generational memory) being both stable and dynamic, is significant for societal life as a whole. Commemoration, as a part of the politics of history, has an impact on cultural memory, bringing to life some remembrances and erasing those which might be deemed uncomfortable or even “useless” for those caught up in the politics of history. This article examines the visualization of memory and of forgetting the Revolution of 1917 in one of the most popular Soviet weekly illustrated magazines - Ogonek, applying the concepts of cultural memory and social memory to the politics of history and commemoration. Photographs played an important role in the magazine, translating and transmitting the reigning ideology but also reflecting the search for artistic methods as well as the specifics of social consciousness at the time. How were photos used in commemorations of the Revolution of 1917? What visual image of the Revolution was constructed and how did it evolve from the 1920s to the 1990s? How did the memorialization (or “mummification”) of the Revolution manifest itself in the photographs published in Ogonek, transforming the “lived” memory into a mythological and “alien” past? This article shows the visual evolution of the memory of the Revolution into an anniversary celebration by which the past was to be replaced by the “Present” and “Future” and how photography was used to eliminate the “shadows of the past”.
The article focuses on problematic of vision in the circumstances of the growing impact of media and technology. Discussing, on the one hand, the separation from the phenomenological approach to vision and visible, based on such categories as image, imagination, which were endowed with fundamental importance and did not use the category of technical, and on the other hand, the classical studies of certain visual dispositives, such as J. Crary's, it advances to the theories, considering the so-called "media convergence" (Miller, H. Jenkins), which try to justify the specific character of new visual objects on the ground of their complexity and multilevel nature of the media themselves. The author comes then to the problems of the role of the visual in science and technology studies (STS), which at first glance seems to put visuality behind the brackets of consideration. However, the conclusion is that these latter also use the category of visible but transformed. Some terms are also proposed to describe these processes.