Power, Attraction and Reference in the Macro-Level Social Relations: “Closed Group” and “Closed Society” (on the psychology of the “Soviet” and the post-Soviet” person)
In this paper, the features of the social relationship systems are analyzed basing on the materials of the socio-psychological empirical study conducted at two stages (from 2002 to 2014). The empirical data obtained in 2002 comprised 417 participants of different ages from Nizhny Novgorod region provincial towns. The elderly respondents have lived almost all their lives under the Soviet regime; the middle-aged respondents got their education and started careers in the USSR. The main objective of the research was to synthesize the individual systems of social relations, the personal notions of power in particular, to compare the finding between the Soviet and the post-Soviet samples, and to make sense of the discovered differences. Empirical data was obtained with the help of Kelly’s Repertory grid technique designed with the purpose to retrieve the interviewee’s personal ideas about the surrounding world and people without imposing any existing conceptions of social reality. Pertovsky’s three-factor interpersonal relationships model and the concept of the "closed society" make the ground for the theoretical hypothesis we are trying to test. The results for the respondents of different ages, and correspondingly, with different experiences of living in the USSR, are analyzed in terms of the features typical of the closed group. Both the closed societies and the closed groups are characterized by the rigid hierarchical social structure and depersonalization of the social relations and thus the Soviet society can be regarded as closed due to its authoritarian and collectivist nature. We argue that the members of the closed groups and the citizens of the closed society have similar social relationships matrixes and reveal the ways in which the post-Soviet society derived some of its attributes from the "closed society" of the former USSR. Both samples demonstrate the rejection and the mistrust of the powerful, influential figures, however the gradual changes in the understanding of social structure is underway.
Present book is the result of the field work conducted in the tribal villages of Nagaland. Author sought to determine whether the social structure and the economic setup of a Naga village changed somehow over the last 88 years since the first publications of the monographs of the first Brithish researchers. Author argues that the social-psychological archetype – tribe – village – khel – patronimy (kiyong) – clan – family – has hardly changed. The tenure and utilization of land stays unalterable. Pursuant to Article 371А, Constitution of India (Special Provision with Respect to the State of Nagaland), customary law is applied within the territory of Nagaland State.
The monograph is devoted to analysis of social stratification in Russian society. Models of its social structures constructed within the modern approaches to stratification (neo-Weberian, neo-Marxist, resource-based, ect.) are characterized and compared, and the approaches themselves are summarized as well. Empirical base for the analysis is the data of nationwide sociological researches carried out by IS RAS in 1994-2013
We focus on one of these aspects of value theory that has remained relatively underexposed, namely the relation between individual social location and human values. Does one’s position in the social structure—indicated by socio-demographic variables such as age, gender, education and income—affect the values that one prioritizes? We pay special attention to the cross-cultural robustness of the relation between social location and values: Can similar patterns be detected in various European countries? Or do cross-national differences in the relation between structure and values depend on elements of the national context?
We depart from Schwartz’ (1992, 1994, 2006) theory of human values, and make use of the value scale included in the European Social Survey (ESS). We believe that this study adds up to existing research in various ways. First, an exceptionally wide range of European countries is taken into account, including various Eastern European countries. Second, we take up the issue of the cross-cultural equivalence of the measurements. Prior to substantive analysis, we test to what extent different cultural interpretations of values affect the validity of cross-national comparisons. Third, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explicitly addresses the question whether national context affects the relation between social location and values.
The article is dedicated to the review of ways of looking at social space in the sociological theory. Basing on works of those authors, who paid special attention for this question, in the text there is considered the variety of theoretical interpretations and instrumental using the category of social space. The accent is made on application of space in the context of urban sociology. All the material is systematized according to division into three aspects of looking at social space: 1. the space of social actors's interactions; 2. the structure of status positions; 3. the connection of geographic space and social meanings that are attached to it.
An attempt of research of a ratio of the theory and practice in François Guizot scientific and public work is undertaken in this article. Guizot is the central figure of the French liberalism of the first half of the XIX century. The theory and practice of this thinker synthesized liberalism and conservatism.
Special characteristics of modern employment demonstrate serious changes in the character and the content of the labour process. The phenomenon of “the end of labour in its classical sense”, which triggered heated debates in the end of the XX century, was described in details by British sociologist Z. Bauman in his work «The Individualized Society»:
“That situation has changed now, and the crucial ingredient of the change is the new ‘short term’ mentality which came to replace the ‘long term’ one. Marriages ‘till death us do part’ are now a rarity: the partners no longer expect to stay long in each other’s company. According to the latest calculation, a young American with a moderate level of education expects to change jobs at least eleven times during his or her working life – and that ‘job-changing’ expectation is certain to go on growing before the working life of the present generation is over. ‘Flexibility’ is the slogan of the day, and when applied to the labour market it means an end to the job ‘as we know it’, work on short-term contracts, rolling contracts or no contracts, positions with no inbuilt security but with the ‘until further notice’ clause” [Bauman 2001, p. 24].
Rising on the wave of industrialization, after the transition to the postindustrial, information epoch, labour is losing its past significance. More and more people consider labour as a heavy routine and would like to get rid of it forever. And especially in the circumstances of depressive aggravation of the so called global problems, which have not only been left unsolved since they were identified by the Rome club, but continue to forebode humanity death from ecological catastrophes, depletion of natural resources, incurable diseases, the planet’s overpopulation etc.
There are obvious dramatic changes in the labour and employment sphere. After the transition to the postindustrial economy, classic labour (as a hard, back-breaking work, focused on achieving a material (embodied) result) ceases determining the sense of human existence.
The article presents a sociological interpretation of efficient management of research team’s social structure, based on the stationary action principle.A relevant mathematical model was designed, built on application of variational principle to social structure operationalised as probability density of research team’s social distinctions. The article also includes an overview of empirical testing of the model by conducting a sample study.
This paper represents a synthesis of few working papers of the author, published in various mostly foreign publications. In the paper the author examines social consequences and social prerequisites for specific role that Russian state and Russian audiences are playing in the media. In our opinion the situation in Russian media cannot to be perceived outside the context of social structure of the Russian society and the role of the state in this society.
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.