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Regular version of the site
Of all publications in the section: 44
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Article
Gordeeva T. O., Sychev O., Sidneva A. et al. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2018. No. 4.

Background. While the current literature provides valuable insight into how school climate perceptions and student motivation impact academic achievement, research examining the mediating effects of motivation in the linking of innovative educational system, school climate, and achievement is limited. The potential of the El’konin-Davydov system of developmental education as a basis for educational innovation is considered in this study. With respect to academic motivation, self-determination theory is applied as a useful theoretical framework that allows for the consideration of both the intensity and the quality of motivation.

Objective. The study examines a model that illustrates the role of autonomous and external types of academic motivation in linking the El’konin-Davydov system of developmental education and school climate to the academic achievement of elementary schoolchildren.

Design. A cross-sectional design was implemented in the current study. Participants were 345 third and fourth graders drawn from four regular schools located in Moscow, with some (N=192) educated in the traditional system and others (N=153) in an innovative one.

Results. The results of structural equation modeling showed that the hypothesized model fit the data well, supporting the hypothesis that student external motivation plays a mediating role in linking educational system (innovative vs traditional) with academic achievement. Additionally, results indicated that students’ autonomous motivation plays a mediating role in linking positive perceptions of school climate with academic achievement.

Conclusion. These results highlight that the developmental education approach compared to the so called traditional system of education provides better instructional quality, promoting decreased external motivation as well as a better attitude towards school and study, which in turn is associated with higher academic achievement.

Added: Oct 23, 2018
Article
Fedotova (Goldyreva) V. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2017. Vol. 10. No. 1. P. 105-116.

This article presents the results of a research dedicated to the correlation between cultural values and economic attitudes (n = 110 people). The participants belonged to the young (18 – 25 years old) generation and the adult (37 – 63 years) generation of Russian people. The goal of the research was to reveal a correlation between cultural values and economic attitudes among representatives of different generations of Russians. It has been found that for the adult generation, the “Power Distance” value is positively correlated with economic self-determination and the desire of having money. For the young generation, the “Power Distance” value is not associated with the growth of the welfare, and “Uncertainty Avoidance” encourages economic autonomy but does not create more opportunities for increasing personal material income; “Masculinity” does not bring along the economic self-determination. The study has also demonstrated that economic paternalism is most expressed among representatives of the young generation, and they are more ready to take economic risks in order to increase their income, but the chances of making their personal financial income higher are not as big as those of the adult generation. 

Added: Nov 8, 2016
Article
Zolotareva A. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2020. Vol. 13. No. 3. P. 51-65.

Background. The Job Apathy Scale (JAS), developed by G.B. Schmidt (2017), has been widely used in industrial and organizational psychology. This scale examines two dimensions of job apathy, namely apathetic thought (weak interest in the job processes and unwillingness to develop strategies for the promotion of job efficacy) and apathetic action (investing little emotional energy in job tasks, coworkers, or the organization). Objectives. 1) To examine the psychometric properties of the JAS with Russian employees; 2) to assess the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on job apathy. Design. The sample was recruited using the convenience sampling method. Two hundred and seventy-five Russian employees were included in this cross-sectional study. In addition to the JAS, all participants completed measures assessing professional burnout, work engagement, and job satisfaction. Cronbach’s alpha values were used to assess the internal consistency of the JAS. Exploratory and confrmatory factor analyses were employed to examine the factor structure of the JAS. The nonparametric Spearman rank order correlation coefficient was used to examine the convergent and divergent validity of the JAS. The Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to assess the sociodemographic differences in job apathy. Results. Exploratory and confrmatory factor analyses supported a two-dimensional structure of the JAS. The Cronbach’s alpha values were .86 and .73 for the apathetic thought scale and the apathetic action scale, respectively. Job apathy was positively correlated with professional burnout and was negatively correlated with work engagement and job satisfaction. There is evidence of convergent and divergent validity of the JAS. The analysis using a one-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect of age and marital status on job apathy: younger and married employees are more prone to apathetic action than their older and single colleagues. Conclusion. The JAS with the Russian employees is psychometrically reliable and valid, which argues for its scientifc and practice-oriented applications.

Added: Sep 22, 2020
Article
Lebedeva N., Tatarko A., Berry J. W. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2016. Vol. 9. No. 1. P. 41-56.

Background. The project Mutual Intercultural Research in Plural Societies (MIRIPS) is designed to examine the three hypotheses of intercultural relations (multiculturalism hypothesis, integration hypothesis and contact hypothesis) that have been derived from the Canadian multiculturalism policy (Berry, 1984) in a number of countries, and to assess their validity in these countries. Objective. The evaluation of these hypotheses in Russia and Latvia. Design. Socio-psychological surveys of two dominant groups (Russian Muscovites and Latvians), and two non-dominant groups (migrants from Caucasus in Moscow and Russian minority in Riga) employing structural equation modeling. Results. The sense of perceived security promotes tolerance toward other cultural groups in three samples.  Perceived security has no significant relationship with multicultural ideology in the Moscow samples; but in the group of Latvians we have discovered such relationship.  A preference for the integration strategy among migrants in Moscow as well as among Russians in Latvia promotes their better sociocultural adaptation and has a significant impact on the life satisfaction of Muscovites, but has no any impact in Latvian sample. Our results have provided some support for the effect of intercultural contact on acceptance of others in three groups: migrants in Moscow, the Russian minority in Riga and the dominant group in Moscow. However, among Russians in Latvia, there is a negative relationship between contacts and perceived security. Conclusion. The multiculturalism hypothesis has been confirmed with the dominant group in Latvia and has been partly confirmed with both dominant and non-dominant groups in Russia, and with the Russian minority in Latvia. Contact hypothesis has received partial support with both groups in Moscow and the Russian minority in Riga, but was not confirmed with Latvians. There is partial support for the role of the Integration in promoting sociocultural adaptation and wellbeing with migrants in Moscow and Muscovites. These findings require additional analysis of the sociopolitical and historical context in Latvia in order to understand the psychological outcomes of acculturation among the Russian minority.

Added: Feb 12, 2016
Article
Soldatova G. U., Rasskazova E. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2014. Vol. 7. No. 4. P. 65-73.

In this paper, we developed a psychological model of digital competence including four components (knowledge, skills, motivation and responsibility) and four spheres (work with online content, communication, technical activity and consumption). The Digital Competence Index (DCI) is a 52-item instrument assessing an index and an entire profile of digital competence. In the Russian population study (1203 adolescents 12-17 years old and 1209 parents), acceptable reliability (.72-.90 for all of the scales, except motivation) of DCI was demonstrated. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the superiority of the four-component structure with the second-order index. Mean DCI was 34% of the maximally possible level in adolescents and 31% in parents, indicating the necessity for the educational programs in Russia. The motivation component was both the lowest and the least homogeneous factor, indicating that important special efforts to improve motivation to learn in Russian adolescents are needed.

Added: Jul 14, 2015
Article
Ryabichenko T., Lebedeva N. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2016. Vol. 9. No. 1. P. 98-111.

When acculturation strategies of migrants and acculturation expectations of a host society do not coincide, psychological outcomes for members of the groups in contact can differ significantly. Berry (2013) proposed that intercultural relations can be understood on the basis of three hypotheses: the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis, and the contact hypothesis. Our goal was to test these three hypotheses in Russian majority and Asian minority groups. Migrants from Central Asia (N=168; 88 ethnic Uzbeks and 80 ethnic Tajiks) and ethnic Russians (N=158) were surveyed using a self-report questionnaire that included measures developed by the Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies project. Data processing was carried out using Structural Equation Modeling with the Russians and the migrants separately. We found significant and positive relationships between perceived security and multicultural ideology in both groups. We found a positive relationship between intercultural contacts and the integration strategy among the migrants from Central Asia. Intercultural contacts in the group of Russians was positively related to the expectation of integration and negatively related to the  expectation of assimilation. The integration strategy of the migrants was positively related to their self-esteem, while the assimilation strategy was positively related to their sociocultural adaptation and life satisfaction. Among the Russians, the integration expectation promoted their better life satisfaction and self-esteem. The multiculturalism hypothesis was partially supported with both the migrants from Central Asia and the Russians: perceived security promoted an acceptance of multicultural ideology but didn’t promote ethnic tolerance. The contact hypothesis was partially supported in both groups: interethnic contacts were positively linked to the integration strategy of the migrants and the integration expectations of the Russians. The integration hypothesis was fully supported in the sample of Russians and partially supported in the sample of migrants. The migrants’ adoption of the assimilation strategy promoted their life satisfaction and sociocultural adaptation.

Added: Apr 14, 2016
Article
Ivanova A., Нуркова В. В. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2017. Vol. 10. No. 2. P. 42-62.

Background. Whereas reciprocal relationships between autobiographical memory and self are broadly emphasized, there is no empirical research that examines how major life changing transitions affect the graphically expressed life story. 

Objective. The paper focuses on the novel topic of autobiographical memory in transsexual individuals. 

Design. Twenty-eight volunteers who had undergone gender-affirming surgery and 28 non-transgender participants were asked to produce a Life Line which required them to identify the most memorable events in their lives. The level of acquisition of affirmed gender-typed traits was measured by the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI). 

Results. Compared to cisgender individuals, transsexual participants have self-focused Life Lines with a high proportion of vivid flashbulb-like memories and unhappy recollections of childhood. The emotional profile of autobiographical memory addressing childhood was more negative in transsexual participants who deviate from BSRI norms reflecting derogation of past gender category in favour of affirmed gender identity. Those with high acquisition of affirming gender-typed traits assigned more space on the timeline for childhood, revealing the process of self-continuity restoration that leads to an increase in the proportion of positive memories. Accordingly, transsexuals recollected fewer events relevant to their gender identity performing a psychological defence toward the topic of gender. 

Conclusion. We interpreted the results by focusing on the utility of autobiographical memories as a cognitive resource for filling the gap between past and current selves and maintaining self-continuity across the lifespan.

Added: Oct 5, 2018
Article
Galatenko V. V., Livshitz E. D., Chernorizov A. M. et al. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2013. Vol. 6. No. 3. P. 41-48.

Automated classification of a human functional state is an important problem, with applications including stress resistance evaluation, supervision over operators of critical infrastructure, teaching and phobia therapy. Such classification is particularly efficient in systems for teaching and phobia therapy that include a virtual reality module, and provide the capability for dynamic adjustment of task complexity. In this paper, a method for automated real-time binary classification of human functional states (calm wakefulness vs. stress) based on discrete wavelet transform of EEG data is considered. It is shown that an individual tuning stage of the classification algorithm — a stage that allows the involvement of certain information on individual peculiarities in the classification, using very short individual learning samples, significantly increases classification reliability. The experimental study that proved this assertion was based on a specialized scenario in which individuals solved the task of detecting objects with given properties in a dynamic set of flying objects.

Added: Oct 29, 2015
Article
Berry J. W. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2016. Vol. 9. No. 1. P. 4-23.

Multiculturalism is an increasingly common characteristic of contemporary societies. In culturally diverse social contexts, virtually every person experiences intercultural contact on a daily basis. It is essential to understand that there must be both cultural diversity and equity in social participation for true multiculturalism to exist in these settings. Beyond its core definition, it is clear that multiculturalism is a complex concept encompassing many dimensions and meanings. First, the term is understood to describe a demographic fact, indicating the existence of cultural diversity in a society. Second, multiculturalism refers to the policies and programs that are in place to manage intercultural relations and acculturation. Third, multiculturalism refers to psychological phenomena, including individual attitudes and ideologies that accept or reject the demographic, civic and policy features of multiculturalism. This chapter considers Canadian multiculturalism policy, examining how the multiple meanings of multiculturalism vary around the world. Within this framework, I highlight the psychological processes and outcomes of multiculturalism, particularly in connection with acculturation, adaptation and intercultural relations and consider whether these processes and outcomes differ for dominant and non-dominant groups. I suggest some ways in which to enhance the positive outcomes of intercultural contact and the resultant acculturation outcomes. Finally, this chapter sets the stage for the presentation of the other chapters in this volume. It elaborates three hypotheses derived from Canadian multiculturalism policy: the multiculturalism, integration and contact hypotheses. 

Added: Sep 23, 2016
Article
Voiskounsky A. E., Ermolova T., Yagolkovskiy S. R. et al. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2017. Vol. 10. No. 4. P. 144-161.

The study was designed to examine possibly new aspects of creative activity related to virtual environments. Online gaming interface Minecraft was used to construct (on computer screens) complex structures such as buildings from ready-made blocks. Two modes were used: individual and dyadic. Participants (N=49, 29 males and 20 females, 18 to 29 y.o., recruited on a snow-ball basis) were required to build distantly two complex structures: a ship and a house; each structure was required to be highly creative, i.e. unusual and never seen before. Creativity was estimated not by the final structure but by the number of ideas generated by the participants and produced either in practice or verbally. Each participant participated once in an individual and once in a dyadic session, the partners were selected randomly. The participants' verbal exchanges were performed via Skype; digital operations with the Minecraft interface were recorded using the FastStone Capture software package. All the ideas produced by participants were classified in accordance with the following criteria: type (conceptual, functional, selective, corrective, and intentional), level of the structure which the produced ideas referred to (the whole structure, a particular component of the structure, or an element of the structure), and the status of verbally produced ideas (implemented or unimplemented). The results show that participants produced significantly more ideas and consumed significantly less time to build the prescribed structure (a house or a ship) within the individual session compared with the dyadic session. Analysis of the implementation of ideas shows that, within the dyadic sessions, participants produced significantly less ideas which were subsequently implemented. For the most part they intensely dropped out and left unimplemented the ideas referring to the levels of either components or elements of the structure. Results also show that intentions were the only type of ideas which, being generated equally often in the individual and dyadic sessions, were more often left unimplemented in the group sessions, compared to the individual sessions.

Added: Oct 6, 2015
Article
Sorokin P. S., Mironenko I. A. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2015. Vol. 8. No. 4. P. 35-45.

This article begins by discussing the origins of the methodological crisis in psychology. In the literature the idea of a permanent methodological crisis in psychology, lasting since the 1890s, dominates. We contest this view and argue that the contemporary methodological problems in psychology should be considered within the context of the novel and larger crisis challenging all socio-humanitarian knowledge in the face of the transformations in social reality in recent decades. The nature of these transformations and their implications for the theory and methodology of the socio-humanitarian sciences are analyzed by drawing on the sociological literature, which is more sensitive to changes in social life than is psychology. Prominent sociologists argue that the “old” theories and interpretations of the “social” are no longer relevant in the new, highly complex, and globally unstable reality; this new reality has largely transformed the dimensions of human beings’ existence. Meanwhile psychology still tends to comprehend the universal nature of the human. This position undermines the relevance of both psychology’s theoretical models and the practical implications derived from these methodological assumptions. We argue for revision of the perennial psychological problem of the biology-culture interaction in human nature. To resolve the contemporary methodological crisis in psychology, a shift is needed from theories of universal and immutable human nature to the idea of the human as an infinitely changing creature. Because culture is, primarily, the ability to change, wherein the speed and extent of changes are unique for humans, distinguishing them from other living beings.

Added: Jan 12, 2016
Article
Kornilova T., Chumakova M., Krasavtseva Y. V. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2018. Vol. 11. No. 2. P. 114-133.

Background. Choice, under conditions of uncertainty, is mediated by integral dynamic regulatory systems that represent hierarchies of cognitive and personality processes. As such, individual decision-making patterns can be studied in the context of intellectual and personality potential. This article presents the results of a cross-cultural comparison of personality characteristics, such as coping with uncertainty, emotional intelligence, and academic achievement, between Azerbaijani and Russian university students.

Objective. We aimed at establishing metric invariance and at highlighting relationships between emotional intelligence and the scales of the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ).

Design. Azerbaijani and Russian student samples were selected for this study due to the almost identical educational programs offered by Moscow State University to students in Moscow and its branch in Baku. Coping with uncertainty was measured by the MDMQ, emotional intelligence by the EmIn questionnaire, and academic achievement by GPA scores. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify factor structure invariance and congruence.

Results. The congruence of factor structures for both questionnaires was verified. For the MDMQ four-factor structure for both samples was confirmed. For the EmIn questionnaire, invariance for two scales was established — “Understanding other people’s emotions” and “Managing own emotions”. Relationships among personality traits, gender, age, and academic achievements are explained for the Lomonosov Moscow State University students in Moscow (Russia) and its branch in Baku (Azerbaijan). No cross-cultural differences were found for emotional intelligence and productive coping (Vigilance). A cultural difference was established in unproductive coping preference for Buck Passing. A similarity between the cultures was captured in the relationship of higher emotional intelligence (EQ) scores to higher Vigilance scores and to lower levels of unproductive coping patterns. Vigilance was a predictor of academic achievement, but only in the Russian sample.

Conclusion. The similarity of the educational systems, as both samples studied similar programs, demonstrates very few cross-cultural differences.

Added: Oct 1, 2018
Article
Chernorizov A. M., Jiang Z., Petrakova A. et al. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2016. Vol. 9. No. 4. P. 37-50.
Added: Nov 27, 2019
Article
Chumakova M., Kornilov S. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2013. Vol. 6. No. 4. P. 94-108.

This paper presents the results of an empirical study investigating individual differences in tolerance and intolerance for uncertainty, using a multidimensional approach. We hypothesized that individual differences in attitudes towards uncertainty are rooted in expectations regarding different sources and subjective evaluations of uncertainty. The results of structural equation modeling and latent profile analysis largely supported these hypotheses. Importantly, latent profile analysis identified four distinct profiles of atti- tudes towards uncertainty that represented, in addition to classically understood toler- ance and intolerance for uncertainty, intolerance for uncertainty with respect to different sources of uncertainty (environment vs. personal relationships). 

Added: Nov 9, 2015
Article
Lepshokova Z., Tatarko A. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2016. Vol. 9. No. 1. P. 57-73.

This paper examines intercultural relations in Kabardino-Balkaria. Among a large number of ethnic groups living in Kabardino-Balkaria, Kabardians and Balkars are the largest ones (i.e. the so called “titular” ethnic groups). Russians represent the third largest group in the region. The paper reports the results of an empirical study of intercultural relations, mutual acculturation and adaptation of Kabardians and Balkars (N= 285), and Russians (N= 249). More specifically, the study examines the relevance of the three hypotheses formulated to better understand intercultural relations: multiculturalism hypothesis, integration hypothesis and contact hypothesis. We conducted path analysis in AMOS with two samples: the sample of Russians and the sample of two main ethnic groups (Kabardians and Balkars), and further compared path models with each other. The results revealed significant effects of security, intercultural contacts, multicultural ideology, acculturation strategies and expectations on attitudes, life satisfaction and self-esteem in both samples. These findings partially confirm the three hypotheses in both groups. However, we also identified a regionally specific pattern. We found that in the Russian sample, the integration strategy was negatively related to well-being, while contact with dominant ethnic group was positively related to well-being. At the same time, in the sample of Kabardians and Balkars, acculturation expectations of integration and assimilation were positively related to well-being. In the present paper, we discuss this regional specifics

Added: Feb 12, 2016
Article
Galyapina V. N., Lebedeva N. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2016. Vol. 9. No. 1. P. 24-40.

This article examines intercultural relations in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (RNO-A). The research is based on the theory of acculturation of J. Berry and uses the hypotheses and measures developed in the Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies project. The RNO-A is the most favorable place for Russians living in the North Caucasus because attitudes toward the Russian minority in the RNO-A are not discriminatory. Our goal was to test three hypotheses in the RNO-A: the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis, and the contact hypothesis. We conducted a sociopsychological survey. The sample included members of the ethnic majority, the Ossetians (N= 318), and members of the ethnic minority, the Russians (N= 327). Data processing was carried out using structural equation modeling (SEM) separately for the ethnic minority and for the ethnic majority, and the models were compared with each other. The results show that perceived security among the Russians (the ethnic minority) as well as among the Ossetians (the ethnic majority) promoted support for a multicultural ideology, tolerance, and mutual integration. The number and frequency of friendly intercultural contacts had a positive and significant impact on a preference for integration among both the Ossetians and the Russians. An integration strategy and the expectation of integration promoted life satisfaction in both groups. Because the results of the study confirmed all three hypotheses, we conclude that interethnic relations between the Russians and the Ossetians in the RNO-A are based on the principles of multiculturalism.

Added: Aug 8, 2016
Article
Podolskiy D. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2013. Vol. 6. No. 2. P. 44-54.

There are considerable differences between the value hierarchies revealed by different methods of measurement. The quantitative measure of such a difference could be referred as Congruence - Discrepancy Index (CODI). The more congruent are the results of different methods the bigger is the CODI. In the present study I compared value hierarchies obtained by the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) and original instrument based on the constant-sum scale (CS) in two samples of adolescents (special schools for at-risk adolescents and ordinary secondary schools). The results show that the CODI measured for ordinary school students is significantly higher than for adolescents recruited from special schools. The significant correlation between CODI and school engagement was revealed for the ordinary school sample. The possibilities of using CODI in value research are discussed.

Added: Apr 20, 2014
Article
Grigoryan L., Kotova M. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2018. Vol. 11. No. 3. P. 18-35.

Background. We use Social Identity Theory as a theoretical framework, specifically focusing on strategies of identity management. The study is based on the following theoretical assumptions. First, identity management strategies might serve as mediators between different identity threats and behavioral patterns in intergroup relations. Second, identity management strategies help to make the shift from the individual to the group level of analysis, allowing us to take the consequences of intergroup behavior for a group entitativity into consideration. Third, identity management strategies strongly depend on the social context of intergroup relations. Objective. In the current study, we look into the relationships between identity management strategies of the ethnic Russian majority and their attitudes towards multiculturalism to identify whether certain strategies are helpful or harmful for the acceptance of multiculturalism in Russia. Design. We use Russia vs. the West comparison to evoke the perception of identity threat. We measure strategies of identity management based on this comparison, as well as attitudes towards multiculturalism in a survey of 307 Russian participants. Results. The findings suggest that identity management strategies are indeed related to attitudes towards cultural diversity and equality in Russia, as well as to acculturation expectations of whether minorities should adopt the mainstream Russian culture or keep their own. We find that strategies of individualization, individual mobility and assimilation have mostly negative consequences for acculturation expectations, as they all show patterns that support assimilation of minorities instead of integration. We also find support for the “scapegoat” hypothesis, showing that choosing the strategy of changing the comparison group results in more negative attitudes toward cultural diversity and equality for all in Russia. The strategies of social creativity (change of the categorization dimension, temporal comparison, comparison with a standard, etc.) seem to be irrelevant for attitudes towards multiculturalism. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that none of the strategies of identity management promote acceptance of multiculturalism. However, strategies of social creativity are the only ones that do not have negative consequences for support of multiculturalism. Theoretical and practical implications for multiculturalism policy adoption in Russia are discussed.

Added: Sep 11, 2018
Article
Pavlova A., Butorina A., Nikolaeva A. Y. et al. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2017. Vol. 10. No. 3. P. 190-205.

Background. Previous studies have shown that brain response to a written word depends on the task: whether the word is a target in a version of lexical decision task or should be read silently. Although this effect has been interpreted as an evidence for an interaction between word recognition processes and task demands, it also may be caused by greater attention allocation to the target word.

Objective. We aimed to examine the task effect on brain response evoked by nontarget written words.

Design. Using MEG and magnetic source imaging, we compared spatial-temporal pattern of brain response elicited by a noun cue when it was read silently either without additional task (SR) or with a requirement to produce an associated verb (VG).

Results. The task demands penetrated into early (200-300 ms) and late (500-800 ms) stages of a word processing by enhancing brain response under VG versus SR condition. The cortical sources of the early response were localized to bilateral inferior occipitotemporal and anterior temporal cortex suggesting that more demanding VG task required elaborated lexical-semantic analysis. The late effect was observed in the associative auditory areas in middle and superior temporal gyri and in motor representation of articulators. Our results suggest that a remote goal plays a pivotal role in enhanced recruitment of cortical structures underlying orthographic, semantic and sensorimotor dimensions of written word perception from the early processing stages. Surprisingly, we found that to fulfil a more challenging goal the brain progressively engaged resources of the right hemisphere throughout all stages of silent reading

Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that a deeper processing of linguistic input amplifies activation of brain areas involved in integration of speech perception and production. This is consistent with theories that emphasize the role of sensorimotor integration in speech understanding.

Added: Oct 5, 2018
Article
Radina N., Koskina M. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2017. No. 1. P. 117-129.

In this paper, the features of the social relationship systems are analyzed basing on the materials of the socio-psychological empirical study conducted at two stages (from 2002 to 2014). The empirical data obtained in 2002 comprised 417 participants of different ages from Nizhny Novgorod region provincial towns. The elderly respondents have lived almost all their lives under the Soviet regime; the middle-aged respondents got their education and started careers in the USSR. The main objective of the research was to synthesize the individual systems of social relations, the personal notions of power in particular, to compare the finding between the Soviet and the post-Soviet samples, and to make sense of the discovered differences. Empirical data was obtained with the help of Kelly’s Repertory grid technique designed with the purpose to retrieve the interviewee’s personal ideas about the surrounding world and people without imposing any existing conceptions of social reality.    Pertovsky’s three-factor interpersonal relationships model and the concept of the "closed society" make the ground for the theoretical hypothesis we are trying to test. The results for the respondents of different ages, and correspondingly, with different experiences of living in the USSR, are analyzed in terms of the features typical of the closed group. Both the closed societies and the closed groups are characterized by the rigid hierarchical social structure and depersonalization of the social relations and thus the Soviet society can be regarded as closed due to its authoritarian and collectivist nature. We argue that the members of the closed groups and the citizens of the closed society have similar social relationships matrixes and reveal the ways in which the post-Soviet society derived some of its attributes from the "closed society" of the former USSR. Both samples demonstrate the rejection and the mistrust of the powerful, influential figures, however the gradual changes in the understanding of social structure is underway.

Added: Dec 22, 2016
Article
Asmolov A.G., Schekhter E., Chernorizov A. et al. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2018. Vol. 11. No. 3. P. 2-17.

Background. Discussion of the social origins of personality formation, based on the biological individual, is a characteristic feature of modern interdisciplinary researches at the junction of natural science and the humanities. At the same time, evolutionary aspects of the relationship between the biological (innate) and the social (acquired) — i.e., the problem of the origin of sociality — come to the forefront. 

Objective. This article presents and discusses the hypothesis that the evolutionary origins of sociality are processes of evolutionary divergence (increasing individual diversity) and convergence (symbiosis) that define two oppositely directed vectors of the development of life from its simplest forms. 

Method and Results. The theoretical and experimental data used to discuss the hypothesis are considered here from the standpoint of the historical evolutionary approach to the processes of formation (evolution) of the uniqueness of the personality and of social interpersonal relations. The approach is based on an understanding of these processes as a special case of the evolution of interacting systems on the basis of two opposing trends — towards preserving and towards changing the system. The hypothesis allows us to answer two questions about the ambivalence of human existence in society: (a) Why do all people, regardless of their social status, find it so difficult to endure loneliness, which is incompatible with both the mental and even physical health of each of us? (b) Why at the same time do all of us involuntarily protect the “boundaries” of our own physical, mental, and social “Me”, the violation of which is as destructive (unacceptable) to us as is loneliness? 

Conclusion. Systematic historical-evolutionary analysis of the sciences of nature, society, and humankind allows us to isolate general patterns of development of complex systems, leading to a more accurate understanding of the phenomenon of personality. Such an interdisciplinary approach was used in this work on the biological roots of sociality and the particular features of individual existence in the external and to some extent social environment that generates unique individuals. 

Added: Oct 10, 2018