A superfluous man
The article considers a fundamental contradiction between a hypertrophied desire to freely pursue one's goals and the insuperability of fate that is inherent in Mikhail Lermontov's novel Hero of Our Time [Geroi nashego vremeni] in which the drive for “freedom” precipitates meaningless rebellion. The collision between thought (awareness contradiction) and the vital impulse (élan vital) causes the identity of the hero to split: thought turns out to be fruitless and life hopeless. This contradiction is symptomatic of cultural degeneration, and of the transformation of cultural values into “simulacra”—the “superfluous man” is a simulacrum of identity.
In this paper, the author analyzes theories of free will proposed by neurophysiologist Benjamin Libet and psychologist Daniel Wegner, and also engages with criticism of both theories by philosopher Daniel Dennett. In the end the author gives her own evaluation of these theories.
The problem of free will remains one of the primary unsolved problems of John Sealre’s philosophy. In his book ‘Freedom and Neurobilology’ (2007) Searle proposes two alternative hypothesis that would allow one to make sense of the nature of freedom, but ultimately finds both of them unsatisfactory. In this paper we propose a modified version of Searle’s argument, which attempts to reconcile the common sense intuitions with physiological determinism on the basis of Kahneman’s theory of cognitive systems. Specifically, we focus on the collision between the fast and the slow cognitive system as the basis for the experience of freedom.
The philosophical essay “What is Freedom” by Hannah Arendt though modest in extent, serves as a kind of a key deciphering and elucidating the underlying import of her major works written both before and after this essay, namely “The origins of totalitarianism”, “Vita activa”, “On revolution”, “On violence” etc. Arendt analyses such concepts as “freedom of the mind”, “freedom of the will”, showing that the roots of the very phenomenon of freedom lie in the political realm. Freedom is a faculty of man to begin something new, non-existent in this world. It is a capacity to interrupt “automatic” processes in natural as well as political sphere. In the Preface the translator places the questions raised in essay in a wider framework of Hannah Arendt’s work.
The article discusses the process of formation and evolution of the concept of Free will in the period of late Anquity and Middle Ages and also reasons of the fact that this concept became a foundation of European interpretation of personality and social teaching of the Catholic Church. The analysis was conducted on the basis of official legal documents of the Catholic Church, as well as on the basis of writings of Doctor of the Church. The compilation of theological and legal approaches makes it possible to assess influence of the catholic teaching on the formation of legal doctrine and West European mental model in comparative perspective.
The Realist interpretation of 'War and Peace' - articulated by Martin Wight and Stanley Hoffmann - is based on Tolstoy's understanding of history as it is elaborated in his account of the Napoleonic invasion in the second epilogue of the book. There Tolstoy puts forward a mechanistic view of international relations which are assumed to be governed by inexorable laws of history determining human behaviour and limiting man's exercise of free will. However, Tolstoy's subjection of man to the workings of impenetrable laws of history in the second epilogue is at variance with a multiplicity of conscious moral choices that his three main characters - Nikolay Rostov, Andrey Bolkonsky and Pierre Bezukhov - make throughout the book. It is argued that the different treatment of the freedom vs. necessity problem in the fictional and historical narrative can only be understood contextually, i.e. from within Tolstoy' rejection of the Enlightenment tradition of scientific and moral inquiry.
The monograph presents a holistic view of the development of ideas, theory and practice of modern existential analysis. This view has allowed to demonstrate the contribution of existential analysis in psychology and its methodological potential as the basis for the construction of integral personality psychology, psychological counseling and psychotherapy, relevant modern scientific and socio-cultural context. The book is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students studying psychology and psychological counseling, practicing psychologists and psychotherapists, a wide range of professionals and researchers in the field of philosophy, social Sciences and Humanities.
The interrelations between culture and economic development cause noticeable interest in the academic community in recent years, however a set of questions still remain open. In particular, there isn’t a lot of works about the interdependence of visual culture and economic practices. The paper shows the interdependence of accounting practices that ensure transparency in society, with the evolution of visual culture for the last one thousand years. Accounting history for this period is presented as a consequence of the stages which provide the increasing of transparency in economic units (or availability of information) to the actorsinterested in their activity – from owners to society in general. Visual culture is considered as set of objects suggesting their visual perception, and the technologies supporting them. Synchronism is shown between accounting revolutions and significant changes in visual culture and technologies: these are cultural innovations of the beginning of the 2nd millennium, period of the Renaissance, second half of XIX and end of the XX centuries. Joint periodization is offered for the accounting practices and visual culture, on the basis of changes in the mechanisms of transparency in society, i.e. technologies and instruments of information perception and cultural practices’ reproduction. It is shown that visual aspects and innovative technologies supporting them had the greatest impact on development of accounting from all aspects of culture, and this impact can be traced only in the context of the European culture.
The political process is a constant interaction between the power and opposition. The political process is a constant clash between the formal and informal, between direct speech and metaphors. Power always makes sense only if there is resistance. The power resistance is balanced in favor of its dialectical opposition. Practice protests are taking place at all political regimes, but not always the possibility of resistance are similar. In some political systems interlocutor on government and realization of the right to revolt are an essential political and moral principle. In other cases, in dictatorships, the right to revolt conquered by a hard struggle, not always being efficient and not always getting massive. The author shows how, depending on the cultural traditions of the images may vary resistance. Indeed, the figure of the rebellious person differently perceived in the political landscape. The discourse of resistance can be filled by individual practitioners of dissent, as well as robust tradition of protest. Relations between the power and rebellious man shows and interpreted by the author in a variety of subjects belonging to different cultures. From the point of view of the author, in the practices of rebellious man in his quest for freedom and demonstrate their own position, you can find both special and general, is equally emphasizes the integrity of the political process.