Вариативность просодии как основа красноречия
The article reports on the phonetic aspect of eloquence. Special focus is given to the variation of prosody in public presentations.
Purpose: This study investigated how listeners’ native language affects their weighting of acoustic cues (such as vowel quality, pitch, duration, and intensity) in the perception of contrastive word stress. Method: Native speakers (N = 45) of typologically diverse languages (English, Russian, and Mandarin) performed a stress identification task on nonce disyllabic words with fully crossed combinations of each of the 4 cues in both syllables. Results: The results revealed that although the vowel quality cue was the strongest cue for all groups of listeners, pitch was the second strongest cue for the English and the Mandarin listeners but was virtually disregarded by the Russian listeners. Duration and intensity cues were used by the Russian listeners to a significantly greater extent compared with the English and Mandarin participants. Compared with when cues were noncontrastive across syllables, cues were stronger when they were in the iambic contour than when they were in the trochaic contour. Conclusions: Although both English and Russian are stress languages and Mandarin is a tonal language, stress perception performance of the Mandarin listeners but not of the Russian listeners is more similar to that of the native English listeners, both in terms of weighting of the acoustic cues and the cues’ relative strength in different word positions. The findings suggest that tuning of second-language prosodic perceptions is not entirely predictable by prosodic similarities across languages.
The textbook contains the description of the phonetic system of the English language.
While space-time metaphor is a source of regular prepositional and adverbial polysemy, in deixis, spatial words are generally not prone to evolving into temporal markers. However, Russian spatial proximity marker tut ‘here,’ which develops temporal proximity meanings, demonstrates a deviation from this tendency. Its meaning, though, is different from the meanings of classical deictic markers of temporal proximity, such as sejčas ‘now.’ Tut develops a synthetic meaning of actuality, which comprises the following semantic elements: (a) time period which includes the moment of speech, and such moments preceding and following it that are sufficiently close to the moment of speech to retain connection with it; (b) physical or mental space that includes the speaker; (c) a situation where the speaker is either a participant or an observer. Besides its special semantic properties, tut is characterized by communicative and prosodic peculiarities.
This book brings together academics and practitioners from a range of disciplines from more than twenty countries to reflect on the growing importance of transparency, power and control in our international community and how these concerns and ideas have been examined, used and interpreted in a range of national and international contexts. Contributors explore these issues from a range of overlapping concerns and perspectives, such as semiotic, sociolinguistic, psychological, philosophical, and visual in diverse socio-political, administrative, institutional, as well as legal contexts.
The collection examines the ways in which 'actors' in our society - legislators, politicians, activists, and artists - have provoked public discourses to confront these issues.
The article examines the formation of monologue speech and the infl uence of linguistic laws of incorporation and contamination on this process. It contains analysis of the semantic structure of monologue carried out on the basis of key words and nuclear tones of theme centres and their prosodic depiction. The analysis was performed on spontaneous monologues. The results of the acoustic analysis and statistics data were obtained through the computer programme Speech Analyzer
Variation and variety, basic linguistic notions elaborated, among many others, in Prof. Schweitzer’s works, are addressed in the article in the context of an increase in variation in modern Russian under the influence of global English. The increase in contact-induced variation is investigated in connection with the following: 1) an increase in borrowings and semantic calques from English into Russian, 2) an increase in Russian-English code-switching and code-mixing, and 3) major changes in Russian-English interaction contributing to the change of status of English in Russia and the initiation of a specific regional variety of English, Russia(n) English.
The article deals with articulations of philosophical and literary dimensions in Plato. He was very early defined as the paragon of both philosopher and writer, and praised and criticized by both philosophers and philologists. A long philosophical tradition blamed him for excessive artistry and beauty. But it is obvious that we owe the perfect state of manuscripts of dialogues, as well as their vitality and viability, to their literary qualities.
Interregional differences of main statistical indicators of material and technical basis of Russian schools are studied. The list of indicators includes: state of buildings and their facilities, communal services, availability of computers and Internet, libraries, providing conditions for physical culture, security (safety), dining-halls. The level of interregional differentiation of indicators under review is measured by traditional statistical characteristics, such as: average median, maximum and minimum value, variation, regional asymmetry, coefficient of asymmetry. Comparative analysis has shown that interregional differences related to the material and technical, and informational provision of the teaching process are rather high, although it is possible to trace the gap in some indicators slackening. It is emphasized that there is a need for complex modernization of general education statistics. In the context of unification of statistical survey over the education institutions' activities and development a rating system for evaluating regions of the Russian Federation is to be established using education development indicators as a tool of an interregional analysis and improvement of the regional educational policy.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.