This paper examines how export and export destination stimulates innovation by Russian manufacturing firms. The discussion is guided by the theoretical models for heterogeneous firms engaged in international trade which predict that, because more productive firms generate higher profit gains, they are able to afford high entry costs, and trade liberalization encourages the use of more progressive technologies and brings higher returns from R&D investments. We will test the theory using a panel of Russian manufacturing firms surveyed in 2004 and 2009, and use export entry and export destinations to identify the causal effects on various direct measures of technologies, skill and management innovations. We find evidence on exporters’ higher R&D financing, better management and technological upgrades. Exporters, most noticeably long-time and continuous exporters, are more active in monitoring their competitors, both domestically and internationally, and more frequently employ highly qualified managers. Exporters are more active in IT implementation. When it comes to export destination, we find that non-CIS exporters are more prone to learning. However, we cannot identify that government or foreign ownership shows any impact on learning-by-exporting effects.
Modern Ireland – is EU member state with open, progressive, and dynamic economy. The Irish economy is staging a recovery from the world crisis of 2008 and global turmoil, which have affected most developed countries of the world. The country returned to market financing in 2012, which reflects increased investor confidence in Irish economy. During last years, Ireland performs exceptionally well on main economic and social indicators. Like most other OECD and EU countries, Ireland has experienced rapid growth in the services sector. The country's competitiveness and export potential have also significantly improved in post-crisis. Ireland has a leading position in global ranking which indicates countries have been successful in creating a prosperous society. In the UNDP's 2014 Human Development Index (HDI), which ranks the countries based on their life expectancies, access to knowledge and standard of living, Ireland ranked 11th out of 187 countries.