This paper examines how export and export destination stimulates innovation by Russian manufacturing firms. The discussion is guided by the theoretical models for heterogeneous firms engaged in international trade which predict that, because more productive firms generate higher profit gains, they are able to afford high entry costs, and trade liberalization encourages the use of more progressive technologies and brings higher returns from R&D investments. We will test the theory using a panel of Russian manufacturing firms surveyed in 2004 and 2009, and use export entry and export destinations to identify the causal effects on various direct measures of technologies, skill and management innovations. We find evidence on exporters’ higher R&D financing, better management and technological upgrades. Exporters, most noticeably long-time and continuous exporters, are more active in monitoring their competitors, both domestically and internationally, and more frequently employ highly qualified managers. Exporters are more active in IT implementation. When it comes to export destination, we find that non-CIS exporters are more prone to learning. However, we cannot identify that government or foreign ownership shows any impact on learning-by-exporting effects.
The article deals with an exigent problem of choosing a strategy for industry development, considering a wide range of possible government regulation measures. The definition of a limited set of most effective measures is carried out by joint application of SWOT-analysis and the hierarchy analysis method (AHP). Illustrations of this approach are demonstrated in the example of an export-oriented strategy development for the Russian poultry farming. The described approach allowed a quantitative comparison of measures for assessing priorities, which would mostly contribute to an increase in exports. Among the highest-level priorities of strategic planning, which may have the greatest impact on increased export of Russian poultry products, the authors highlighted stable production rates of the industry and emergence of new markets. This group also includes measures that restrain negative consequences of possible outbreaks of avian influenza and other poultry diseases.