Факторы абсолютной и субъективной бедности в современной России
The article is dedicated to the issue of subjective poverty predictors and answers the question whether the main factors of absolute poverty lead to subjective poverty as well. The paper describes the main factors of absolute poverty according to the literature review and tests them using binary logit regressions for both cases of absolute and subjective poverty. Based on logit regressions it is shown that the typical factors of absolute poverty do not lead to subjective poverty. The group of the subjectively poor is formed by representatives of all income groups of the modern Russian society. The paper also demonstrates the difference between two analyzed phenomenons basing on econometric and substantive analysis. It is concluded that the subjective and absolute poverty are the different phenomena, subjective approach to poverty can not be directly used for the purposes of social policy.
The present paper focuses on identification of relative “poverty line” and a threshold of high poverty risks. The paper also studies key poverty factors in contemporary Russia. It demonstrates that the relative approach to poverty which is widely used in Western countries is applicable in Russia too. However, the relative poverty thresholds set at 0.5 and 0.75 medians per capita family income identify quite different groups of the poor. The threshold of 0.5 median income indicates deep poverty happened mostly to the unemployed workforce. The rel ative poverty threshold equal to 0.75 median income identifies the poverty of the elderly who are not considered as the poor by the absolute approach because pensions of Russians has been recently equalized to the subsistence level. Above all, the paper provides econometric estimates of socioeconomic determinants of both absolute and relative poverty. It was revealed that the relative deep poverty of the working population was primarily caused by the “bad jobs” rather than “bad” human capital. Absolute poverty of workers is more or less determined by both factors.
In the article provides an analisys of poverty in modern Russia
The chapter analyzes the impact of various socio -demographic characteristics of the individual to the risk of poverty. It is demostrated that the certain features are not just factors of poverty, along with the structural characteristics of individuals, but their role is great. Still, they are mostly complementary and corrective, rather than the main causes of poverty/ and the last is mostly determined by position in the labor market . Exceptions are the cases of very high dependency load and belonging to single-parent or multi-children families .
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.