Особенности медиаизмерений, медиаландшафта и Аудитории СМИ в ХМАО и ЯНАО
The paper discusses the range of problems, which arise in standardized interviews on time budget evaluations of academics. Authors present some methodological reflections, which were made in course of policy-oriented study on work time budgets of teachers and researchers. The study was conducted in one of the leading universities in Moscow. The analysis is carried out on the material of 21 interviews. As a result some conclusions about the possible sources of errors in the estimates of time spent on various types of workload were made. Three common strategies of recalling that respondents used to retrospectively assess the time spent on a particular task were described. Authors also examined the biases concerning the subjective character of the respondents’ estimates. In conclusion some practical recommendations, which can be taken into account in further studies on work time budgets of academic professional, are presented.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.