Русский социально-политический язык: "Наказ" Екатерины II
The research is devoted to the formation of Russian social-political terminology. It analyzes the usage of such words as 'citizen', 'society', 'state' in the text of “Instruction” by Catherine the Great and linguistic strategies of the translation of these terms from the French language (as "The Spirit of the Laws" of Montesquieu was the basis for Catherine's “Instruction”).
The article analyzes major trends in the official politics of history in the context of the other problems involved in construction of national identity in Russia during the last twenty years. It traces the main shifts in political usage of the national history in 1990-2000s focusing on discourse analysis of seventeen annual presidential addresses. It argues that due to the series of choices of the ruling part of the Russian political elite the spectrum of symbolic moments that could be used as the pillars of the new Russian identity was essentially narrowed. As a result the Great Patriotic War became one of the key moments of the politics of history.
The author investigates a phenomenon of development of ideologies in a historical context. So the transition of the academic historiography from positivistic methodology to methodology of the linguistic analysis is considered. Linguistic analysis is presented by the theory of speech asts and history of concepts. Accordingly, ideologies appear as cognitive mechanisms and simultaneously cognitive political outlook fi lters.
At the first sight, it seems that the word “civilization” has been part of everyday language for quite a long time. Meanwhile it is almost the opposite: the concept of “civilization” appears in European languages only in the second half of the XVIII century, and it was first used in Russian as late as 1830. In this book we are trying to answer several questions: what has triggered the “invention” of a new term by European thinkers? Why for a long time did Russian politicians and political writers dispense with the concept of “civilization” but by the end of 1820s feel a sudden need to use it? What is the historical relationship between the two competing concepts “civilization” and “culture”? When and how did thinkers start dwelling upon a special “Russian civilization”?
This paper discusses the genesis of a basic concept of moral discourse – the concept of “justice” [spravedlivost’] – in Russian culture. This study was inspired by the lack of Russian and foreign research of the evolution of the concept of “justice” in the Russian language. The methodological basis of this work is the late Wittgenstein’s philosophical principles of interpreting social phenomena through the real word usage. This paper presents historical study of “justice” on the basis of sources from the late 11th through the 20th century. The analysis consists of two stages: 1) Identifying the time of the appearance of a given word-concept in the Russian language and explaining its origins in its socio-cultural con- text; and 2) tracing the semantic evolution of the concept in connection with social and cultural dynamics.
In this article is considering the process of a forming and evolution of the concept of yerro in the romance language of the first half of XIII cent. On basis of the bilingual texts of the period (Etimologiae of Isidor of Seville, Fuero Juzgo) and also of the official papers of Fernando III is making an analysis of the principal meanings of described concept in this period. Yerro during the reign of Fernando III was considered as a term more ethical than juridical and was used mainly for designate an error, a sin, a fault, but not a crime.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.