### Article

## О методе ВКБ для разностных уравнений: вейлевский символ и фазовая геометрия

We study the asymptotics of solutions of linear difference equations (recurrence relations) with slowly varying coeffi cients. It is known that the local asymptotic behavior of solutions can be obtained similarly to the WKB approximation for linear differential equations. In contrast to the continuous case, one of the major obstacles to the widespread use of discrete WKB method is the lack of a geometric interpretation of the obtained asymptotic formulas. We show that it is possible to build a simple geometric interpretation of discrete WKB method if one consider the difference equation as pseudo-differential with corresponding Weyl symbol (Hamiltonian). We obtain such a geometric interpretation for local asymptotics, turning points, the Bohr-Sommerfeld rule and other basic elements of the semiclassical approximation.

The eigenvalue problem for the perturbed resonant oscillator is considered. A method for constructing asymptotic solutions near the boundaries of spectral clusters using a new integral representation is proposed. The problem of calculating the averaged values of differential operators on solutions near the cluster boundaries is studied.

Analytical decision of the nonlinear recurrent correlation special class with exponential additive function is proposed. Researched recurrent correlation are typical for recursive algorithms laborious function, which have been developed by decomposition method and possess exponential laborious of the received decisions consolidation. Analytical decisions for recurrent correlation with arguments type floor and ceiling arising for researched class theoretical consideration are derived. Results make it possible to analytically receive of the recursive algorithms laborious functions which decompose of the determined task with exponential laborious of the decisions consolidation.

A general method for determining the asymptotic

eigenvalues near the boundaries of spectral clusters

is given. As an example, the spectral problem for a

perturbed two-dimensional oscillator is considered.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

This book gathers papers from the International Conference on Differential & Difference Equations and Applications 2017 (ICDDEA 2017), held in Lisbon, Portugal on June 5-9, 2017. The editors have compiled the strongest research presented at the conference, providing readers with valuable insights into new trends in the field, as well as applications and high-level survey results.

The goal of the ICDDEA was to promote fruitful collaborations between researchers in the fields of differential and difference equations. All areas of differential and difference equations are represented, with a special emphasis on applications.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.