Методология конструктивизма в психологии познания
The paper discusses main sources and directions of constructivism in psychology, constructivist approaches in Russian psychology and the interpretation of constructivism fundamentals in cognitive research. The concept of task is considered as a key concept for the current stage of research.
This article examines the different ways of the reconstruction of true and false memories: purposeful rethinking of the experience and the distortion of memories. The impact of the external and internal factors on the memory is discussed.
This article examines the different ways of the reconstruction of true and false memories The impact of the external and internal factors on the memory is discussed.
In this paper, we present an approach to scalable co-scheduling in distributed computing for complex sets of interrelated tasks(jobs). The scalability means that schedules are formed for job models with various levels of task granularity, data replication policies, and processor resource and memory can be upgraded. The necessary of guaranteed job execution at the required quality of service causes taking into account the distributed environment dynamics, namely, changes in the number of jobs for servicing, volumes of computations, possible failures of processor nodes, etc. At a consequence, in the general case, a set of versions of scheduling, or a strategy, is required instead of a single version. We propose a callable model of scheduling based on multicriteria strategies. The choice of the specific schedule depends on the load level of the resource dynamics and is formed as a resource query which is sent to a local batch-job management system.
The phenomenon of communication as a manifestation of complexity of interacting creatures. Communication is considered not as a privilege of a human being; it is shown that it is rooted in the world of living nature, it has an evolutionary origins. Communicative complexity is exposed by such concepts as flexibility, constructing, intersubjectivity, participatory sense-making, empathy, synergy, mutual incorporation and co-emergence of creatures which enter the process of communication. Understanding of communication from the position of the conception of enactivism allows disclosing some substantial aspects of the constructivist character of communicative interaction.
The book contains the official proceedings of The Asian Conference on Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences 2013.
The chapter analyzes the current state of affairs in EU-Russia relations and looks into the peculiarities of the Constructivist methodology of analysis of political processes and international relations.
In the Soviet Union of the 1920s, the most prominent avant-garde artists were eager children's book illustrators. Reaching a mass audience of unformed, malleable young people appealed to their commitment to an art manifesto based on the creation of a new kind of person for the revolutionary age. At the same time, the opportunity to work for good pay along with a low risk of censorship were practical attractions. The Constructivist artists drew considerable attention in the West for their brilliant creativity in using geometric designs, machine-age forms, and an architectural sense of space in their approach to the visual arts. Rejecting easel painting as a passe bourgeois preoccupation, they turned to designing and mythologizing objects of everyday use. In a major reassessment of their work, Evgeny Steiner forcefully demonstrates that the Constructivists were as committed to implementing Utopia - regardless of the human cost - as their establishment counterparts. Basing his work almost completely on primary sources - Russian picture books from the Russian State Library, private collections, and publishers' archives - Evgeny Steiner tells his story in deft prose with a wry sense of humor. The solidness of his sources, the range of his interests, and the depth of his understanding of Russian life combine to make this an unusually perceptive book on a fascinating cultural issue that combines the visual arts, literature, and politics.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.