Адаптация и валидизация вопросника для оценки риска систематических ошибок в рандомизированных контролируемых испытаниях
The questionnaire of the Cochrane Collaboration developed to assess risks of the main bias in randomized controlled trials (RCT) was translated into Russian. It was also adapted and validated. We proposed to consider the risk of the conflict of interests as a mandatory part of the questionnaire. Also we slightly modified the rule to determine the total risk of bias in RCTs. Validation of the questionnaire accomplished by two experts on 20 RCTs demonstrated good agreement: Kappa = 0.785, 95% CI (0.503; 1.000)
Climate change is already having a negative impact on agricultural production in Russia, especially grain production, since this sector is perhaps the most dependent on weather and climate factors. This report presents an economic evaluation of the impact of climate change on crop production at the national level and a long-term economic evaluation of the losses, profits, and risks for agriculture throughout Russia. It analyses the situation in the two the major agricultural regions, where the negative effects of climate change are especially pronounced, and examines the prospects for adapting Russia’s agriculture to climate change
The commented famous work by S.J. Gould and R.C. Lewontin is crucial not only to sociobiology critique but to polemics on evolutionary theory in general. Reflection provoked by Gould and Lewontin’s paper in the field of philosophy of biology enables to clarify the relation between the adaptationist program and biological reductionism.
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered gold standard in generating judicious evidence to support treatment decisions. Ideal-typical trials are called explanatory trials to distinguish it from trials completed under real-world conditions. The four most prevalent types of bias (selection-, performance-, attrition-, and detection-bias) can be avoided and internal validity of a study can be increased if all requested quality criteria will be met. The external validity can be neither investigated not can it be confirmed by randomized trials. But the confirmation of external validity is as important as the confirmation of internal validity because knowledge that has been generated in RCTs will be valuable only if it can be successfully applied to patients under real-world conditions. For confirmation of external validity the mentioned four types of bias have to be avoided. In addition, it has to be confirmed that the individuals from whom the evidence was derived are comparable to the individuals to whom the evidence should be applied. Violation of this simple appearing requirement is called 'sampling bias'. A two-step procedure seems to be useful to confirm internal as well as external evidence. As first step the efficacy of a therapeutic principle may be confirmed under ideal study conditions by using an explanatory trial without demanding the confirmation of external validity. In a second step the benefit for the investigated group of patients is examined under real-world conditions (pragmatic trial). The design and established methods for evaluation of these studies are discussed. The two-step approach offers three advantages: it reduces the risk to over-interpret the results of RCTs as explanatory trials can only demonstrate efficacy under ideal conditions. The benefit which is requested by our authorities can be demonstrated only by pragmatic trials which consider the external validity. Progress may possibly achieved only if controlled pragmatic trials will be used which can compare the influence of the intended (specific treatment effect) intervention with not-intended (confounder) interventions. Examples for these methods are the propensity score matching or structural equation models.
EMI (English as the Medium of Instruction) has led NRU HSE to implement the use of English in teaching different subjects. It takes into account the institution`s language policy and the programs which offer subjects in English, as well as the needs and benefits of the teachers and students. The use of English is increasing in tertiary education. The concept of teaching content in another language, other than that of the students’, has existed since the past century. But its study has not showed how to progress in these subjects. So, it was necessary to collect qualitative and quantitative data by means of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaire data and feedback from students taking such classes at NRU HSE shed light on problems involved with EMI classes. The findings of this needs analysis that was carried out in this paper can help to create an action plan that will include training schemes to foster internationalization. The report concludes with practical recommendations for language support activity and improved English language abilities.
In terms of increasing social mobility, migration processes and weakening of territorial and socio-cultural identity, it is important to study place (home) attachment. Based on the environmental psychology researches of place attachment phenomenology (Scannell & Gifford, 2010) and home environment preferences (Coolen, 2011) we define home attachment as close emotional and cognitive bonds with one’s home environment and functional satisfaction with its content leading to the individual desire to maintain closeness with home. The aim of the study was to examine how home attachment is interconnected with the ideal (desired) and actual home environment’s multilevel functionality. Our tools were: developed by authors Functionality of Home Environment Questionnaire, The Personal Relevance of Home Environment and Home Attachment Scale. In total, 13 variables were investigated. Participants were 346 adults (Mage=26,6, SD=10,5; 138 males, 208 females), living in Moscow. There has been found that: home attachment is strongly predicted by the real image of home, while the ideal image has little effect on home attachment. The relationship between home attachment and home environment’s functionality is gender-specific: women's are more sensitive to the affordances of real home environment than men, whereas ideal home has a stronger impact on men’s home attachment; men's and women's home attachments are predicted by the different functional character
портовый менеджмент, показатели деятельности, анализ эффективности, система учета, распределение издержек, методы анализа деятельности портовой системы
At present many industries reveal tendency for setting up of vertically integrated companies (VIC) the structure of which unites all technological processes. This tendency proved its efficiency in oil industry where coordination of all successive stages of technological process, namely, oil prospecting and production -oil transportation - oil processing - oil chemistry - oil products and oil chemicals marketing, is necessary. The article considers specific features of introduction of "personnel management" module at enterprises of oil and gas industry.
vertically integrated companies; personnel management