Перспективы современных подростков в контексте жизненной траектории
The analysis of existential, social and instrumental approaches to understanding of construction of trajectory of life course by adolescents is presented; their key theses are compared; possibilities and restrictions from the point of view of understanding of meaning and developmental tasks in adolescence are studied. It has been shown that different aspects of life construction are emphasized in different approaches thus enabling to concentrate on everyday, notional aspects of life (existential approach); social representations about succession of stages, image of success, system of attitudes to adolescent’s construction of life (social approach); as well as on environmental and interpersonal resources for concrete tasks’ solution and tactics of their implementation (instrumental approach). Conclusions about strong and weak aspects of the examined approaches make it possible to specify programs for psychological and pedagogical support of adolescents in planning and realization of their life choices. Recommendations have been made; prospects of studies in the given field of psychological researches have been shown.
The article examines trends in theoretical and applied concepts about the adolescent period and in particular about how adolescents develop life goals. We discuss the blurring of the boundaries of adolescence, the postponement of life decisions, and the difficult process of separating from parents as trends in modern adolescent life. Certain features of modern society (transitivity and its consequences) complicate the ability of adolescents to plan their lives and lead them to apply tactical thinking to their lives as opposed to strategic thinking. We examine the role that the family and in particular the culture of discussing the future can play in helping adolescents plan their lives.
The article is about adaptation of immigrant children, adolescents, and their families
The present article treats changes in the learning environment of contemporary children as exacerbation of the “childhood crisis.” We believe that new research in the field of developmental psychology is required in order to apply cultural-historical theory to new data. The article presents two studies: one of them considers a preschool game based on contemporary cartoon plots, and the other considers how adolescents (eighth- to tenth-graders) read J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter books. The preschool study shows that the game has developmental potential and that its plots reproduce complex human relations. TheHarry Potter study shows that adolescents are attracted to bold and heroic stories with ambiguous and unknown outcomes.
Modern teenagers immerse in the social networking sites is a debatable issue among parents, psychologists and educators. Researches describing the phenomenon of social graphs and their attractiveness are rather contradictory. Based on the fact that this new technology has become the most demanded among young people we can assume that social networks available adequate puberty period are. Thus puts forward the hypothesis that through the study of social networks as a new resource meets the needs of puberty is possible to construct the present demands and leading activity of the modern teenager. Special attention is paid to the study of developmental potential of social networks for education and socialization of adolescents.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.