Неравные среди равных: почему развивающиеся страны реже выигрывают споры в ВТО?
This article discusses the factors that affect the chances of a favorable resolution of claims to the WTO dispute settlement. On the basis of 488 complaints received by the WTO since the establishment of the organization by 2014, we demonstrated that the developing countries have a smaller probability of successful resolution in the dispute than the developed countries. This inequality can be explained by differences in the size of economies (GDP), but the paper shows that differences in the country’s experience of participation in WTO disputes have a higher predictive power.
This article examines the position of Russian state courts, in particular, of the Supreme Commercial Court, w i t h regard to the arbitrability of disputes concerning the transfer of title i n real estate and of corporate disputes under Russian law. These specific issues are dealt w i t h i n the light of the general approach of Russian courts to arbitration. Firstly, some necessary explanations are given in relation to Russian regulation, practice and attitude towards arbitration. Then, the approach of the Russian state commercial courts w i t h regard to the arbitrability of real estate and corporate disputes is described and compared w i t h their general attitude to arbitration manifested in Russian case law. Finally, the author's viewpoint on the possible concerns underlying the apparently incongruent stance of the commercial courts to the arbitrability of real estate and corporate disputes is discussed.
Over the years of WTO work, the inconsistency of positions on individual issues between countries, as well as groups of countries, has often led to a deadlocks in the solution of certain trade and political problems. However, the joint search for mutually beneficial, compromise ways, the willingness of participants to Dialogue at the WTO platform demonstrated the viability of the multilataral trading system.
The chapter in a monograph gives an insight into the key problems and most recent tendencies of the law and practice of mediation in Russia. Russia already has detailed federal legislation governing mediation. Also, mediation has been practised in Russia for years, even when such legislation was not in force. Furthermore, Russian law governing mediation is in rapid development. Thus current Russian experience can be of interest to legislators and practitioners from many countries which also face problems with case overload in the state courts.
Five papers analyze the bidirectional relationship between poverty and migration in developing countries. Papers discuss the patterns of migration in Tanzania (Kathleen Beegle, Joachim De Weerdt, and Stefan Dercon); work-related migration and poverty reduction in Nepal (Michael Lokshin, Mikhail Bontch-Osmolovski, and Elena Glinskaya); the evolution of Albanian migration and its role in poverty reduction (Carlo Azzarri, Gero Carletto, Benjamin Davis, and Alberto Zezza); migration choices, inequality of opportunities, and poverty reduction in Nicaragua (Edmundo Murrugarra and Catalina Herrera); and how developing country governments can facilitate international migration for poverty reduction (John Gibson and David McKenzie). Murrugarra is Senior Economist in the Latin America and Caribbean Region at the World Bank. Larrison is a PhD candidate and Assistant Teacher in the Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration at George Washington University. Sasin is Economist in the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Department at the World Bank. Index.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.