Известные психологи на монетах и банкнотах мира: приступая к поиску
The subject of the article is collecting as a socio-cultural phenomenon. The author of the article aims to discover philosophical-anthropological premises for the Western cultural tradition to show individual collectors in a bad light and to speak of them as fanatics, speculators and maniacs. Being an inadequate reflection of the reality, this tradition is encouraged by a number of economic factors defining peculiarities of popular culture. However, initially this tradition is based on Freudian methdology of choice and analysis of cultural phenomena. Implementation of this scheme is viewed as mythologisation and the main systematically important element thereof, the sublimation theory, is qualified as a pseudo-scientific myth. The basic research method used by the author is the critical analysis of historical and philosophical texts and social-phenomenological study of social and cultural phenomena at the empirical and theoretical levels. As part of his historical and philosophical excursus, the author of the article offers to view Sigmund Freud's sublimation theory as viewed by Max Scheler. Rejecting vulgar interpretations of the sublimation theory as 'spiritual alchemistry', Max Scheler still found the rational kernel in Freud's theory. The author of the present article assumes that this is the point of coincidence of the two philosophers which allows to speak of the influence made by Freud on metaphysics of late Scheler. Following the idea of Karl Marx on 'spontaneous activity', the author of the article concludes that collecting is an expression of freedom, active self-realization of human in his leisure time, and a form of active self-fulfiment of personality in a society. To the author's opinion, a collector can be referred to neither Freud's homo libidinosus, nor to Nietzsche's homo politicus, nor to Marx' homo oeconomicus. Just like any other subject of a cultural practice, collector is encouraged by spiritual aspirations and appetences rather than the three basic existential forces named above. These spiritual aspirations and appetences are dictated by values, ideals and cultural standards. They cannot be reduced to none of these forces, neither do they consistute all of them altogether.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.