Оценка социально-экономических общественных потерь от ДТП в России
Every thirty minutes a person dies in a road traffic accident in Russia. Twenty five thousands die annually, which is equivalent of the middle-populated city in the country. According to Traffic Police Statistics in ten times more people turned out to wounded or disabled in the result of road accidents. In order to reduce the number of deaths in the car accidents it is necessary to implement specific measures, which cost a lot. That is why the relevance of more specific evaluation of socio-economic national losses which arises because of death, disablement and traumatism in the road traffic accidents is pointed out. To make this possible authors have worked out the efficient methodology for estimation of socio-economic national losses as a result of road accidents. In accordance with our analysis the whole amount of the value is 487.1 billion RUB in 2013.
Any road traffic system is very complicated and can be dangerous to health. Elements of this system include motorized transport vehicles, roads, road users as well as physical, social and economic environment. Countries with high automobilization have long ceased to consider traffic accidents as a pure “chance”; furthermore, efforts aimed at preventing and mitigating negative consequences of traffic accidents are thoroughly designed and structured.
In 1972, William Haddon published his study with incorporated approaches that used to be individually applied to trauma epidemiology and transport engineering. Haddon suggested a model to analyze traffic situations that were dangerous to health. Haddon’s approach allowed to achieve a notable progress in understanding factors related to driver’s behavior, vehicle characteristics and road infrastructure conditions affecting emergence of traffic accidents and severity of consequences for participants. Haddon’s approach turned out to be a useful analytical instrument and became widely used in healthcare.
There is a way of using a DVR for automatic collision warning of vehicles moving on the oncoming lane. This way is based on the analysis of the images parameters dynamics of vehicles on the road obtained with the help of a video recorder. The analysis determined the value that is compared with a threshold level. Its excess indicates an increased risk of collision of vehicles. At this time, the driver is notified of the need to change the parameters of the vehicle and the restructuring. When using this method, the question remains concerning the adjustment of the algorithm parameters. The aim of the work is to simulate statistically the probability of an accident with timely alarm to the driver about the risk of collision, as well as to study the effect of the alarm parameters on the probability of collision of vehicles moving on the oncoming lane. As a result of modeling, a series of dependencies on the collision probability of different parameters of the alarm algorithm, the car, the driver and the car movement is received. Based on the obtained dependences, it will be possible to conclude about the optimal setting of the parameters of the driver's alarm about the possibility of a collision, taking into account the status and performance of the road system, the car and the driver.
The problem of motor vehicle injuries in Russia nowadays is a common topic of discussion. Motor vehicle accidents as a cause of death are among the most significant causes of premature mortality in Russia. Motor vehicle accidents, the cause of 26,977 deaths in 2013, are an important public health problem, the leading cause of death among young working-age people. In addition to these deaths, annually about 250 thousand people are seriously injured and need hospital treatment. This puts a serious burden on the healthcare system, which must provide medical care for injuries while at the same time solving other priority problems. This paper is devoted to an analysis of the statistical sources of information about road traffic accidents in Russia. The author analyzes Russian and international approaches to the organization of statistics about road traffic accidents. An evaluation is presented of the undercounting of road traffic accidents with injured people and the underestimation of its impact in Russia. Recommendations are made on how to record and compare information from different sources about road traffic accidents.
Abstract. Over more than ten years, Russia has been at the top of the list of the OECD countries by traffic-related death rate per 1000 residents. The death rate in Russia is five- to six-fold greater than in most of the developed countries, given that the number of cars per 1000 residents is much lower. Despite the increased attention and financing, the problem of road traffic injuries remains unresolved. The implementation of the 2006- 2012 Road Safety Federal Target program did not bring about the expected results. Russia`s lagging behind the leading countries in traffic injury prevention is due to the ineffective system of law control and implementation. The problem of corruption in the road safety management is of special attention. According to a number of experts, today the political efforts to tackle the road safety problem is only aggravate the situation and contribute to the increase in corruption cases which shows the ineffectiveness of the policies. Effective road traffic safety policy requires a good knowledge of the situation. With the lack of scientific studies and regular publications devoted to this problem, there is nothing left but taking impulsive and random decisions.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.