Cultural Administrators as Creative Workers: the Case of Public and Non- governmental Cultural Institutions in St. Petersburg
Despite the increasing number of studies devoted to creative professionals, there are still many topics, which remain understudied. Among these topics there is interconnection of professional labor and cultural institutions of which labor conditions are framed. Furthermore, while much research has been devoted to the UK, other regions or global concerns have gained little attention. This article concerns creative professionals in post-Soviet Russia. It offers an overview of the field of cultural institutions in St. Petersburg in relation with the cultural administration and the professionals working for it. In particular, this study points out to the public sector in the Russian cultural production and new non-state institutions founded by young entrepreneurs and activists, which have constantly to struggle for recognition and support of the city’s administration. Based on fieldwork conducted in St. Petersburg in 2012-2014, the empirical study includes 26 in-depth interviews with cultural managers, employees of art-centers, lofts, creative spaces, museums, theatres. The research items here highlighted are concerned with the peculiarities of the institutional environment arisen in Russia as regards the creative labor in public and non-governmental cultural institutions. It is discussed whether the post-socialism system presents a ‘luckier’ medium for a ‘good’ creative job than that of advanced capitalism.
The book consists of articles of Japanese and Russian researches devoted to humanities.
In this article the issue of the creative activities of young artists from Russia and China representing the new generation of the 21st century is emphasized in historiography for the first time. The analysis is based on the material, produced during a collaborative project which began in 2015. The project in question features both cross-disciplinary and cross-cultural approaches, that are essential for liberal education. For the first time in world culture, a history of one cultural space is being formed. In this space a new generation, which emphasizes its own identity, is acting, while challenging, feeling and recognizing its own 21st century. A renowned Professor of Peking University and art historian Peng Feng, contributes to a dialogue between Russian and Chinese artists regarding the nature of the modern Chinese art. Refs 19.
The article considers attempts to transform economic mechanisms of culture, which were made since the latest years of Soviet period. The main point of the transformations analyzed was to achieve a rational balance between the freedom of initiative of cultural goods producers and public control of their activities. Transformations were brought into action under three main directions: 1) economic empowerment of cultural organizations, including privatization of a part of state institutions; 2) implementation of normative principles of budgetary funding of state cultural institutions: 3) development of the alternative to state funding sources of cultural activities. In the article, the three stages of transformation are distinguished: the one dating back to before the collapse of the USSR, the second comprises the nineties years of the last century and the third includes the recent time. In this paper, it is shown that at each stage, in fact, the same objectives were set and the attempts to achieve them were unsuccessful leaving economic mechanisms of culture in their initial condition. In other words, there was a sort of “motion in a circle” instead of gradual development in the intended direction.
The book is devoted to analyzing the oeuvre of Jan Vermeer in the context of Delft School development and the epoque of Baroque art. The author focuses on Vermeer's style which evolved due to traditions of genre painting adopted in the Netherlands, however, its unique features bring genre painting to the level of symbolic generalization. The first 9 chapters of this research are displaying various aspects of Vermeer's art, and the 10th chapter reflects on how the principles of the "Delft Sphinx" resonate with contemporary art.
In recent decades, the biennial has become the most widespread mode of showcasing contemporary art. Rather than acting as mere aesthetic containers, these shows aspire to be socially relevant by raising questions about capitalism, colonialism, inequality, environmental devastation, and gender imbalances. In this chapter, we draw from ethnographic observation of the 7th Berlin Biennale (2012) that took place in the context of a rising anti-capitalist discourse reflected in the Occupy movement and the movement of the squares. We explore the outcome of curators’ attempts to disrupt existing practices by introducing the logic of activism. Drawing from empirical vignettes, we identify three institutional rationales that coexisted, clashed, and mutually displaced this logic, reaffirming rather than disrupting the idea that art has to preserve some distance from social reality, that neo-anarchist activism should prefigure social reality in the here and now, and that the configuration of the above through the organization’s politics of visibility that promotes the spectacle of the Berlin Biennale and itself as a brand. These three rationales concomitantly and decisively structured the event’s public performance and turned the idea of linking art to activism into the spectacle of a human zoo. We discuss our findings and link the micro-institutional logics to broader macro-level logics of aesthetic capitalism and spectacle.
During the XXth century South Koreans art has being developing under the influence of Western art movements, first modernism and later postmodernism. Korean artists began to study western avant guard mevements in 1950s on a full scale. In 1960s they started to face the need to resolve the issue of finding national in arts, they started to combine traditional aesthetics with Western technology.
In the 1990s, after Koreans were allowed to visit foreigh contries, some artists went to study in the West, where they were swept by the wave of conceptual art and the ideas of postmodernism. This generation has brought Korean art to the world level. Over the past two decades, South Korea has made a breakthrough in the field of contemporary art, the country became one of the centers of Asian contemporary art. South Korean art is successfully integrated into the global art world. Artists speak on the general topics of the world art, such as, for example, the criticism of the consumer society and the prevailing stereotypes and people in today's global world. In this paper, taking as example ouvre of the most influential Korean artists we will see how today an issue expressing national ideas and aesthetics in arts is solved and what are the distinctive features of contemporary South Korean art.
According to research had been taken in the UK, Europe and USA creative labor implies uncertainty and risk. However, the distribution of risk is associated with structural and institutional factors: age, gender, ethnicity, social class, a particular field of activity and so on. The main research question of this paper is how educational background influence on creative graduates career paths. In particular, the paper is based on empirical study of young artists of St. Petersburg, graduates of two different types of educational institutions, conceptualized as "classical / modern" and "contemporary". The empirical research included 15 IDI and 10 séances of participant observation. Belonging to different paradigms of visual art, two types of education develop in the young artists various competences and skills, preparing them for the realities of the relevant professional life. In particular, the basis for education in the "classical / modern" institution becomes the improvement of artistic technique by preset exercises. The "contemporary" educational institutions focus on the acquisition of competencies of immaterial artistic production: the skills of writing texts about the works, discussions of their conceptions and its relevance, history and theory of contemporary art. Research results indicate that the educational background is largely determines the starting point of the two professional artists and their methods of adapting to the art market.