Университеты на рынке: Академический капитализм как вызов и как окно возможностей
The modern university, and with it the academic profession itself, are facing new challenges: first, the increasing complexity of labor markets and globalization are undermining the structure of the academic profession, and secondly, the rise in cost of university research calls into question the autonomy of the university. The internationalization of the academic labor market encourages rethinking the structure of academic professions that have historically been focused on national (regional) contexts. The university is too expensive for the state and/or for students. One way to keep the autonomy of the university is to offer society, the state and businesses a wide range of services. Demin seeks to answer the following questions: can bureaucratic (self-)management effectively regulate the growing body of the university? Is it necessary to relinquish part of the university’s autonomy to a hired manager? Can “soft managerialism,” using economic instruments to reveal the possibilities of the university to society, become a new defense of university autonomy?
The book discusses the various aspects of the theory, methodology and history of professional groups studies and professional cultures in Russia and abroad. Special attention is paid to the establishment of sociology of professions as an independent sociological discipline in the Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. Also, a classification of the main theoretical trends in sociology classes and professions, including classical and modern ideas and theories about various aspects of professionalism - the role of special knowledge, methods of internal self-organization of communities, professional culture and the broader institutional and social context. The book contains the results of empirical studies of copyright occupations and professions, including engineering plant workers, engineers, tennis players, professionals and academic sociologists working the field of public opinion research. For social scientists, university professors and students of sociological specialties, as well as for all interested in the history and sociology theory, and the sociology of occupations and professions.
Transformations of academic autonomy This is a theoretical sociological survey. The academic autonomy is considered as a metaphor symbolically defining the borders of the university space. The historical survey deals with the transformations of the academic autonomy in the USSR and Russia. Described are current institutional and global threats to the academic autonomy.
The role of universities has undergone dramatic changes. Universities no longer only host knowledge, but are now required to develop it further and to contribute to economic growth and support for e.g. companies to strengthen their competitiveness. This is of particular importance for the Russian Federation, where the last 20 years saw the dismantlement of the innovation system of the Soviet Union and ever since has been struggling to close the gap to the innovation-driven economies of Western Europe. When the Russian Federation shifted towards a market economy in the 1990s, economists, sociologists, political scientists and/or management staff educated in modern principles of management were in short supply. To alleviate the situation, the State University - the Higher School of Economics - was founded November 27, 1992 by the Russian Federation Government Decree No 736 to educate future leading professionals in the field of economics and social sciences. Currently HSE is the largest research-led institutions in the field of social and economic sciences in Eastern Europe. Spread over Four Russian cities - Moscow, St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Perm. Of particular interest is the Innovation Infrastructure Development Program which puts great emphasize on commercialization of research results and entrepreneurial thinking.
The book explores different approaches towards the ‘entrepreneurial university’ paradigm, explores channels and mechanism used by universities to implement the paradigm and contributes to the public discussion on the impact of commercialization on university research and knowledge. It argues that different types of university-industry interaction may have repercussions even on funding of basic research if an appropriate balance is ensured between the two. University activities – both research and education in all forms – should provide economic and social relevance directed towards open science and open innovation. This book adds value to current knowledge by presenting both a conceptual framework and case studies which describe different contexts.
The concept of entrepreneurial university and role of culture in its formation is analyzed. The understanding of academic entrepreneurial culture, as culture integrating the academic and entrepreneurial values is offered. The article reveals that methods for diagnosis organizational culture in enterprises are not suitable for an assessment of university culture. The suggestions are made for development an adequate technique for the diagnosis organizational culture of entrepreneurial university.
This article analyses the concept of entrepreneurial university and the role of culture in its formation. Theproblem of appropriate diagnostic method is being risen. The article discusses the findings of organizational culture assessmentby means ofdiagnostic methodof R.Goffee and G. Jones in the two universitiesof Nizhny Novgorod. The way ofdevelopment of congruent method of the university organizational culture diagnosis is being offered.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.