Бедность и неравенство в странах БРИКС: российская специфика
Drawing on the broad statistical data, we document that both poverty and inequality in BRICS are based on varying fundamentals. Different definitions of poverty applied in the paper have resulted in defining four types of poverty, such as pre-industrial poverty of the modernized societies (India and South Africa), early industrial poverty of urban lumpen (Brazil), industrial poverty (China and Russia), post-industrial poverty (Russia). It has been proven that model of poverty in Russia is exceptionally heterogeneous as it contains the features of all the models; though it is closer to the industrial poverty. In contrast to this, a model of a pattern of inequality in Russia does match none of the models of inequality listed in the paper. To tackle the “Russian-way” poverty authors highlight the importance of investment and employment policy.