Drawing on the broad statistical data, we document that both poverty and inequality in BRICS are based on varying fundamentals. Different definitions of poverty applied in the paper have resulted in defining four types of poverty, such as pre-industrial poverty of the modernized societies (India and South Africa), early industrial poverty of urban lumpen (Brazil), industrial poverty (China and Russia), post-industrial poverty (Russia). It has been proven that model of poverty in Russia is exceptionally heterogeneous as it contains the features of all the models; though it is closer to the industrial poverty. In contrast to this, a model of a pattern of inequality in Russia does match none of the models of inequality listed in the paper. To tackle the “Russian-way” poverty authors highlight the importance of investment and employment policy.
This article is devoted to the issue of government export promotion activities (export support) available to the Russian companies and focused on removing (or mitigating) various economic barriers, which can prevent the enterprises from participation in the international trade. The article puts forward several objectives, which should be set by the government in order to achieve the most effective results in helping the firm develop its abilities and increase exports at any stage of internationalization. Besides the article contains a list of economic restrictive measures imposed by foreign governments against Russian products and provides certain recommendations concerning possible ways to improve the existing system of government export support.
In the last decades anti-dumping measures have become one of the major threats to the stable functioning of international trade. This can be changed through thorough reform of current WTO rules on anti-dumping, but today this is hard to achieve. May be there is an alternative way to diminish the role of anti-dumping measures in modern international trade. And this way is connected with the notion of economic integration.
Article is based on the analysis of long-term tendencies in changes of entrepreneur confidence and business activity in oussian economy. qhe analysis has revealed a split of entrepreneur community concerning a question about current business conditions and business perspectives in oussia. pplit in entrepreneur community is a problem not only for oussiaI but also for buropean countries. eoweverI the reasons are absolutely different. fn case of burope - a split is consequence of the risks connected with high level innovative activity. ln the contraryI a split exists at the lowest innovative activity in oussia and is connected with impossibility of entrepreneurs to overcome the factors restricting business activity at the initial stages. joreover the major factorsI restricting business activity in oussiaI are connected not with situational adverse external conjuncture or not with financial crisis. qhese negative factors are steady and reflect the properties of the oussian model of capitalism.
There are many interpretations of the concept "social entrepreneurship." Systematization of this concept is very important for research purposes, as well as for the development of the regulatory and legislative framework. This paper considers an attempt this systematization by distinction of the social entrepreneurship forms.