К вопросу об эволюции числовых парадигм отвлеченных существительных в русском языке XX — начала XXI века: анализ типичного примера
The paper deals with the development of Russian abstract noun number paradigms throughout the 20th century and the dramatic rise in the use of plural forms of many abstract nouns that took place in the 1990ies. The case study of the noun риск (labeled no plural in standard dictionaries) confirms that the turn of the 21st century saw a crucial change of the trend in the development of abstract noun number paradigms. The role of the influence of English as a factor underlying this change is discussed. For the noun under survey, the early 1990ies plural form inflow originates from texts in the “business, commerce, economy and finance” topic cluster, which is especially exposed to the influence of English (some typical collocations with the plurals are direct translations from English). The analysis confirms that this influence has played an important role in the change of the development trend. Being one of the “key words of the era”, риск seems to be a representative example of a more general trend toward the actual replenishment of former singularia tantum number paradigms.
The paper discusses the mechanism of loan translation as one of the major instruments of foreign language contact influence on Russian, which has seen a sharp rise at the turn of the 21st century. Particular attention is paid to semantic calquing – a type of loan translation that is more difficult to reveal due to the absence of formal similarities in source and target language structures. Case studies show that direct meaning translation correspondence between a word in the source language and a word in the replica language is a basic criterion to decide whether or not a particular transferred meaning is a case of semantic calquing (polysemy copying). In connection with the discussion of semantic calquing, the paper criticizes the concept of “secondary borrowing”, which is sometimes claimed to be a language contact mechanism distinct from both direct lexical borrowing and loan translation (calquing). The analysis shows that this concept includes essentially different phenomena – instances of polysemy copying (semantic calquing) as well as cases of direct borrowing of lexemes homonymous with previously borrowed loanwords. The paper thus proves that direct borrowing and calquing are the only two language contact mechanisms operating on the lexical level, while the term “secondary borrowing” can only refer to (sometimes random) formal coincidence between a new and an existing loanword
The starting point of the study is the hypothesis of a discursive proximity of Church Slavonic and Christian religious discourse of the modern Russian language. Analysing lexical structure with quantitative corpus methods we show that the latter is closer to Church Slavonic than the mainstream modern Russian language. This can serve as a proof of the specificity of the register in question, an additional argument when deciding on its separate status. Research is based on the material of the Russian National Corpus, namely, the Church-Slavonic corpus, the Main corpus and the Subcorpus of church-and-theologу texts. Using the log-likelihood criterion and PCA visualizations, we reveal the body of lexemes in Russian texts that can be considered Slavonicisms (tserkovnoslavyanizmy) and show that the "distance" between the corpora can be measured differently if one takes into account adjectives, nouns and verbs separately.
The paper describes a phonetic experiment that dealt with the place assimilation of voiceless palatalized alveolar fricative /sj/ by following postalveolar alveo-palatal fricative /ɕ:/ at word boundaries in Modern Standard Russian. As the former sibilant is commonly described as geminated sound and Russian prohibits long consonants in positions near other consonants, the assimilation process can potentially lead to neutralization in such minimal pairs of word combinations as проявила щедрость ‘(she) showed generosity’ and проявилась щедрость ‘generosity showed itself’.
The participants of the experiment, 20 native Russian speakers (10 men and 10 women aged 18 to 40), were instructed to read a list of sentences that included 8 minimal pairs of target word combinations embedded in carrier phrases. All stimuli were recorded in intervocalic position; phrasal accent on stimuli was avoided; accent structure of the target word combinations was deliberately varied (clusters were recorded in all possible positions with regard to stressed and unstressed vowels).
All recordings were analyzed using computer software Praat. The duration and homogeneity of fricative noise were measured. Spectral analysis showed that in 78% of tokens place assimilation of sibilants at word boundaries was complete. The measurements of duration confirmed that this parameter could vary widely, mostly in connection with stress. The duration of [ɕ(:)] sounds within minimal pairs pronounced by the same speaker showed that in similar conditions in 95,5% of cases the sound representing the underlying /sj#ɕ:/ was longer than the surface representation of the underlying /#ɕ:/ (mean difference 34,9 ms; mean duration ratio 1,26).
In order to find out whether these durational differences can be used by native speakers to distinguish minimal pairs a perception experiment was conducted. 15 native speakers, students aged 17-19, were presented with 35 stimuli (word consequences recorded during the described above experiment, but removed from phrasal context; the duration of the fricative varied widely from 135 to 202 ms). The participants’ task was to write down what they think they heard. Their responses demonstrated that they could not reliably distinguish tokens with place assimilation of underlying /sj/ (the number of correct guesses was at a chance rate – 50,8%) and tokens without underlying /sj/ (the number of correct guesses was only slightly larger – 57,1%) despite the significant durational differences.
The described phenomenon can be interpreted as a case of incomplete neutralization. The experiments showed that the neutralization of /#ɕ:/ and /sj#ɕ:/ at word boundaries in Russian is phonetically incomplete due to the significant durational differences between the produced fricatives, although these acoustic cues were not used by native speakers in distinguishing minimal pairs.
This paper presents an analysis of forms of address used in reference to an unknown recipient in everyday communication. In describing the operation of the particular treatment as the author relies on the opinion of renowned experts in the field of speech etiquette and culture of Russian language and on their own linguistic observations and data from a survey conducted in the fall of 2010 the capital’s population aged 20-50 years.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.