The longstanding friendship between Viktor Shklovsky and Roman Jakobson, - which gave way to a gradual cooling of relations, and finally arrived at a complete rupture, - has for almost a century been the subject of numeral scholarly researches. The reality of personal conflict and the obviousness of the multiple psychological, biographical and historical causes that made this conflict inevitable have nearly completely obscured the persistent theoretical dimension of the evolving relationship between the two men. But for all that, the story of their relationship may be interpreted as a history of the clash of two perspectives on the development of contemporary humanistic scholarship, as a history of clash of two metalanguages, or of two ways to see the relationships between poetic language and language as such, between the subject and language, and between language and reality.
The Book of Sessions (Kitāb al-majālis) of Elias of Nisibis is a remarkable example of the Arab-Christian literature of the 11th century CE which is still pending its full critical edition. The content of the book is an account of the discussions between Metropolitan Elias (975–1046) and his Muslim vis-à-vis – wazir Abū ʾl-Qāsim al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī al-Maghribī (981–1027). This work demonstrates the intellectual contacts between the different religious traditions of medieval Arab culture in its flourishing age as well as characteristics of the Christian literature developed in the Syro-Mesopotamian region in that epoch. This publication provides a critical survey of the treatise and discusses a probable source of the fourth session which is represented in Russian translation. While working on the article and the translation, the author used manuscripts from the collections of Berlin and Aleppo.
The paper deals with the development of Russian abstract noun number paradigms throughout the 20th century and the dramatic rise in the use of plural forms of many abstract nouns that took place in the 1990ies. The case study of the noun риск (labeled no plural in standard dictionaries) confirms that the turn of the 21st century saw a crucial change of the trend in the development of abstract noun number paradigms. The role of the influence of English as a factor underlying this change is discussed. For the noun under survey, the early 1990ies plural form inflow originates from texts in the “business, commerce, economy and finance” topic cluster, which is especially exposed to the influence of English (some typical collocations with the plurals are direct translations from English). The analysis confirms that this influence has played an important role in the change of the development trend. Being one of the “key words of the era”, риск seems to be a representative example of a more general trend toward the actual replenishment of former singularia tantum number paradigms.
"Designing" the complete works of his own is an important part of Aleksander Kondratov's creations, a neofuturist poet from Leningrad. One of the prospects of his future collection, "My Trinities" makes it possible to restore the poet's concept to create "The Concretions", a volume of concretist texts, which has not been fully implemented. These texts were obviously aimed at the demonstration of the whole paradigm of devices and forms of this trend of experimental poetry that Kondratov knew at the time. Keywords: Aleatory works, Aleksander Kondratov, dadaism, concretism, neofuturism, uncensored poetry, zero text, permutation, hollow text, found poetry.
Progressive periphrases in German are analyzed in a quantitative and qualitative way. The subject of the analysis is progressive constructions in the XVII–XIX centuries. It is stated that the process of their formation was not homogeneous, as there were two forms of progressive periphrases during the IX–XV centuries that were existing concurrently and were interchanging. It is determined that in any period the most frequent periphrases are im-construction and am-construction, moreover, the frequency of the latter is increasing. It is confi rmed that the process of grammaticalization mostly referred to contraction of locative prepositions and defi nite articles, which lost their lexical meaning in the development of progressive periphrases.
The article presents a comparative study of the use of 1st-person pronouns in English and Russian research articles in sociology. The study employs both qualitative and quantitative approaches, including frequency counts and discourse analysis of a small corpus of research articles (40 single-authored articles in sociology: 20 in English and 20 in Russian). The analysis shows that the authors writing in Russian tend to use fewer 1st-person pronouns compared to the authors writing in English. Moreover, pragmatic functions of the pronouns are quite different in English and in Russian research articles. The paper argues that these differences originate in the traditional collectivist approach to scholarly work that informs Russian academic discourse. In the concluding section, the implications of thesefindings for English for Academic Purposes pedagogies are discussed.
The article analyses Montaigne’s «Les Essais» from the point of view of emblematics and tries to show how emblematic meaning is being constructed in the text. Philological analysis demonstrates how key emblematic features are emphasized within the unique texture of the essays, specifically in chapters of the third book. Based on linguistic and semiotic analysis, the article shows Montaigne’s commitment to emblematic mode of expression. Studying author’s use of exempla, the article establishes its link with Montaigne’s understanding of the word «emblème», as it is uniquely presented in the 9th chapter of the book III. Also, article compares the use of commentaries in the emblem book of Montaigne’s contemporary, Dionysus Lebei-Batilly with Montaigne’s essays, thus showing many common features and differences between the two. Also the use of sententia is being thoroughly analysed in order to show how many of «Essays»’ titles are being explicated as emblematic inscriptiones. Jt js argued that all the typological and functional convergences with emblematics should enable us to speak of the «Essays» as a specimen of emblematic or paraemblematic literature. In the concluding part of the article a unique texture of Montaigne’s narrative is being analysed as an emblematic mode of expression: a number of book’s fragments is presented as a particular «discursive emblem», inevitably deprived of visual means, but demonstrating an emblematic effect nevertheless. With the help of linguistic analysis it is shown that Montaigne intended his work as a specimen of a «mosaic» or an incrustation, whose details form an assembly building up as author’s «emblematic face». Conclusion states that seemingly chaotic text of the «Essays» actually implies existence of the structure, composed thanks to the joints and convergences of special discursive units of emblematic nature.
This article describes some peculiar features of religious practices of the "Hidden Christians" in Japan. "Hidden Christians" are descendants of the first Japanese Christians of the end of the XVI - beginning of the XVII century, who chose not to betray their faith even during the anti-Christian repressions on the Tokugawa shogunate. The "Hidden Christians" have preserved their religious beliefs, which having being deprived of the contacts with missionaries, have acquired syncretic character. They continue their practices up to nowadays, and, despite the introduction of religious freedom in Japan, continue keeping their religious life in secret and don't desire any kind of unification with the representatives of the established Christian churches and organizations.
The paper focuses on the explicit cognitive model of translation process stressing its didactic potential that makes it possible to apply it empirically to the professional activity of a translator by following the steps claimed in the research. The given detailed introspective process scheme of a translator's conscious mental acts has been designed taking into account the creative part of his/her professional work. Thus the first stage is devoted to shaping the background of the cognitive translation process, which comprises an ultimate complex of necessary multifaceted knowledge of linguistic, meta-linguistic and extra-linguistic kinds. The second stage is aimed at combining the elements of that accumulated initial knowledge base, where comparison and selection lead to the search for a mental program image of all possible translation variants. The third stage marks the final choice and taking a most adequate translation decision. The novelty of the presented research is in its attempt to describe an intuitive component being a characteristic feature of any individual translation decision-making process. With this in view, the author starts by critically analyzing both foreign and domestic approaches to creativity and intuition in terms of philosophy and creative psychology. Then their related achievements have been compared to those of the world translation theory. Basing on that the paper suggests the productivity of applying the semiotic and interpretive methodology to the explanation of the cognitive mechanisms of understanding the original and further making translation. The present interdisciplinary research methodology includes logical meditation, analytical modeling, cognitive and comparative analyses, the synthesis of information learned with its further critical evaluation, reflexive thinking, and making deductive/inductive conclusions. The paper consists of the relevant academic literature review, theoretic and methodological framework, results obtained and the didactic recommendations of the author. The research bibliography covers 50 sources, which have been referred to in the paper, by both domestic and foreign scholars, ranging from classical to modern publications.
The article compares the text of A Legend of the Rhine by Thackeray and Othon l’archer by Dumas, père, which was used as a pretext by Thackeray. Among the identified compositional differences between the texts the most significant one is the absence of the embedded tale of the Swan knight, a variation of Lohengrin legend, in “A Legend of the Rhine.” The reasons for Thackeray’s omitting this tale are analysed, the first one being the necessity to simplify the text from the cultural and psychological perspectives in order to make a burlesque out of it. Another reason was a more complicated system of narrative voices used by Thackeray compared to Dumas’ novel, which did not allow the English writer to introduce another narrator. Next, the embedded tale in Othon l’archer heightened the verisimilitude of the embedding text, whereas Thackeray emphasized the fictionality of his tale. Finally, the narrative centre was moved by Thackeray from the dramatic episode to the comic one (the legend of Windeck castle).
This paper explores discourse modifications of the political message in media. Popular political text is characterized as a part of public political communication. The author stresses the significance of public policy beyond mass media.
Th e paper raises the issue of the importance of academic literacy development in a University setting. Academic literacy theory is contextualized, along with theoretical and practical academic writing frameworks, by using the cases of American and European Universities. An attempt is made to explain why academic writing (in Russian as well as in English) is a key academic literacy component and how it should be eff ectively integrated into the University curriculum.