ПОДХОД К ПОСТАНОВКЕ ЗАДАЧ УПРАВЛЕНИЯ НА КОГНИТИВНОЙ МОДЕЛИ СИТУАЦИИ ДЛЯ СТРАТЕГИЧЕСКОГО МОНИТОРИНГА
Approach to statement of a system development control problem in changing external environment is proposed. Necessity of the approach is explained of requirement in supporting tools for strategy monitoring in the cycle of strategy decision making. Proposed approach aims to systematize the process of analysis of deviation from purposeful development of a system and depending on reasons of the identified problems in system development defines a particular statement of a control problem. It’s based on suggested early technique for problems diagnosing on cognitive model of situation (socio-economic, political, business ets.) which helps to determine a diagnostic chart of a problem situation in the system development including obtained problematic goal factors of a analyzed situation, unambiguously determination of a problems type (in depending on a factors leading to deviation from purposefully development, which can be internal, conflict or external). In addition to scheme of the statement of the particular control problem it is considered the control problem in case of negatively influence of external environment. To find a decision of such problem is proposed modification of the SWOT-analysis on cognitive-map-based-model. Proposed approach is shown on the 2 examples of solving problems of 1) an enterprise engaged in the production of ecologically dangerous(due to a deficiency of production staff) and 2) socio-economical city development.
According to the currently prevalent theory, hippocampal formation constructs and maintains cognitive spatial maps. Most of the experimental evidence for this theory comes from the studies on navigation in laboratory rats and mice, typically male animals. While these animals exhibit a rich repertoire of behaviors associated with navigation, including locomotion, head movements, whisking, sniffing, raring and scent marking, the contribution of these behavioral patterns to hippocampal activity has not been sufficiently studied. Instead, many publications have considered animal position in space as the single variable that affects the firing of hippocampal place cells and entorhinal grid cells. Here we argue that future work should focus on a more detailed examination of different behaviors exhibited during navigation in order to interpret the cause of spatial tuning in hippocampal neurons. As a step in this direction, we have analyzed data from two datasets, shared online, containing recordings from rats navigating in square and round arenas. Our analyses revealed structured, grid-like navigation patterns, evident from the spatial maps of animal position, velocity and acceleration. Moreover, grid cells available in the datasets exhibited the same spatial periodicity as the navigation parameters. These findings cast doubt on the cognitive-map interpretation of grid cells, since they suggest that neuronal spatial patterns could be caused by behaviors associated with navigation instead of representing a hierarchically high spatial map. Additionally, we speculate that scent marks left by navigating animals could contribute to neuronal responses while rats and mice sniff their environment.
The chapter gives a brief survey of contemporary subject-formal methods based on cognitive maps, which are used to solve control problems for ill-structured objects and situations. These methods combine mental processing of initial knowledge of a situation with formal methods of cognitive maps processing (simulation or other formal methods).
The essence of the problem of risks due to the human factor while applying subject-formal methods is explained. The essence is that due to inevitable and substantial humans’ participation in solving practical problems for complex and ill-structured objects and situations (at least, for formalization of primary representations) formal methods basically cannot provide validity of received solutions, and therefore these methods are risky.
The chapter describes a number of inter-disciplinary models that can be used to analyze, explain, and forecast risks due to the human factor in the whole lifecycle of subject-formal methods: the distorting effect model, the stereotypes effect model, the ambient intelligence effect model, and the generalized model of expert-analyst.
A number of risk factors that arise while simulating the situation dynamics on the base of cognitive maps is disclosed. Amongst them are the first-kind risk factors coming from decision-making personnel (factors of direct action); the second-kind risk factors coming from theorists and computer-aided technology designers (factors of indirect action); and the hybrid risk-factors.
In order to reduce the risks due to the human factor a number of heuristic criteria of formalization validity is proposed and proven. These criteria can be applied to early disclose direct semantic errors and formalization risks.
The functional approach to verification of different types of models based on cognitive maps, with fuzzy semantics is proposed.
Some of the discovered risks are demonstrated with the use of cognitive maps found in scientific literature as well as maps that have been used to solve real control problems.
The main challenges and directions of further research are presented.
In this paper we propose the scheme of diagnosing the problem situation of complex system development based on the analysis of structural properties of a cognitive-map-based model of the system development. It allows exploring different types of problem situations related to the interaction of active agents, the adverse effect of the environment and the structural features of the system. The distinctive feature of the proposed scheme is that the problem situation is considered in the whole. This is aimed to determine priorities for problem solving, depending on their causes.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The manual is intended for students of Department of computer engineering MIEM HSE. In the textbook based on the courses "Economics of firm" and "the development strategy of the organization." Discusses the key conceptual and methodological issues of the theory and practice of Economics and development planning of the organization. The use of textbooks will enable students: to analyze key performance indicators, and use the tools of strategic analysis with reference to concrete situations in contemporary Russian and international business. Special attention is paid to the methods and systems of information support of the life support functions of business organizations and management methodology of innovation and investment. An Appendix contains source data for analysis of competition in a particular industry.
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.
Over the last two decades national policy makers drew special attention to the implementation of policy tools which foster international cooperation in the fields of science, technology, and innovation. In this paper, we look at cases of Russian-German collaboration to examine the initiatives of the Russian government aimed at stimulating the innovation activity of domestic corporations and small and medium enterprises. The data derived from the interviews with companies’ leaders show positive effects of bilateral innovative projects on the overall business performance alongside with major barriers hindering international cooperation. To overcome these barriers we provide specific suggestions relevant to the recently developed Russian Innovation Strategy 2020.