"Два искусства" Машаду де Каштру
The same year 1775 the equestrian statue of the King Dom José I was inaugurated in Lisbon, the sculptor of the monument Joaquim Machado de Castro (1731-1822) published the festive ode in honor of the king and his statue. My paper aims to reconstruct some historical circumstances for that little-known ode, and propose three possible levels of its interpretation: as a Sovereign’s portrait, as representation of the monument, and as eulogy to the artist. The paper suggests, that there were some topics from Horace, by which Machado de Castro declared the new neoclassic ideas.
Les travaux récents consacrés au rôle de l’Italie et Rome en particulier comme étape la plus emblématique du Grand Tour au XVIIIe siècle mettent l’accent non seulement sur la réflexion pédagogique ou à l’expérience de jeunes nobles complétant leur éducation, mais aussi sur la relation sociale majeure du temps: la sociabilité. Cette étude s’inscrit aussi dans cette tendance sur l’exemple d’un voyage qui n’a jamais été étudié: celui que les comtes Nikolaï et Sergueï Roumiantsev ont effectué en 1775–1776 en compagnie de Friedrich Melchior Grimm.
The case of Petr Saltykov, which stretched on between 1758 and 1765, with a surprising coda in 1796, is noteworthy in many respects. The material collected in connection with Saltykov’s crime is useful for an investigation into magic belief as such, offering parallels and supplementary information to the dozens of “magic trials” of the 18th century. However, what makes the Saltykov case unique is how the chancellor’s “superstition” managed so compellingly to bring together two cultures – traditional folk culture and the “Europeanized” culture of the imperial court. The case of Saltykov’s “sorcery” brought the diametrically opposed cultures of the court elite and the masses into confrontation. But even opposites can come together. As it turned out, the magic beliefs of the masses and medical practices of archaic traditional culture continued to attract adherents at court, getting along just fine in a high-culture, “Europeanized” environment. The chasm that lay between the culture of the aristocratic court elite and popular culture in the 18th century was not unbridgeable, although possible intersections of these two cultures sometimes took on rather strange configurations.
The Enlightenment is inextricably connected to the conception of terrestrial space, through the medium of actual and imaginary travels. The eighteenth century witnessed several scientific expeditions, and these gave birth to a new field of knowledge, ethnography. Alien lands and the people living on them became the subject of reflection for some of the leading philosophes, Leibnitz, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, and Rousseau. Journeys to other states became an element in the education of noble youth. Investigating the historical and geographic problematic of the Enlightenment enables scholars to draw a picture of the representations of physical space made by Europeans of that era as well as to understand more precisely the basic world view underlying colonial expansion. Research of this sort tends to be more productive when carried out at the intersection of various disciplines, and this book is one venue for gathering historians (including historians of culture), geographers, philologists, and art historians together in a single volume. This substantial tome is both international and interdisciplinary, subsidized by two French organizationsdthe Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) and the Fondation Maison des sciences des l'homme (FMSH). Of the nineteen substantive essays, four are in French, one in English, and the rest in Russian. Two essays written by non-Russian scholars appear in Russian. However, the book's international appeal is enhanced by the fact that almost all the Russian-language essays are accompanied by a summary (generally in French) whilst the other essays have Russian summaries. Most of the contributors are Russian; others are French, German, Japanese, Maltese, and Brazilian.
The article is devoted to a previously unknown translator, Vassily Grinkov (the middle of the XVIII century). His translation, made from German in 1745, of Lodovico Guicciardini’s compilation, is not widely known, but the circumstances of its appearance and the reconstruction of the environment in which it appears are extremely important to understand the mechanisms of European culture reception in Russia.