Социологический анализ античной науки: проблемы и перспективы
The study is based on a dataset formed on the basis of the Encyclopaedia of Ancient Natural Scientists (London, 2008) with significant revisions and modifications. The selection criteria, problems of demarkation of sciences (mathemata) from natural philosophy (physike) and practical arts (technai) are discussed. The dataset includes entries on 415 persons, pseudonyms and anonymous treatises associated with at least one of the six mathematical "disciplines": mathematics, astronomy, geography, harmonics, optics, and mechanics. Five phases of the population dynamics of sciences of the antiquity were identified: the rapid growth phase (600–350 BCE), first plateau at the level of 60–70 contemporaries (350–50 BCE), decline (from 50 BCE through the beiginning of the current Era), second plateau at the level of 25–40 contemporaries (0–500 CE), final decline (500–600 CE). The growth and decline phases are characterised by a concerted rise or decline of most populated disciplines, while the plateaus are composed of fluctuations of the different disciplinary communities counterbalancing each other. Patterns of population dynamics of different disciplines are discussed separately.
Throughout the twentieth century, glaciologists and geophysicists from Denmark, Norway andSweden made important scientific contributions across the Arctic and Antarctic. This research was of acute security and policy interest during the Cold War, as knowledge of the polar regions assumed military importance. But scientists also helped make the polar regionsNordic spaces in a cultural and political sense, with scientists from Norden punching far above their weight in terms of population, geographical size or economic activity. This volume presents an image of Norden that stretches far beyond its conventional limits,covering a vast area in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Sea, as well as parts of Antarctica. Rich in resources, scarce in population, but critically important in global and regional geopolitics, these spaces were contested by major powers such as Russia, the United States, Canada and, in the Antarctic, Argentina, Australia, South Africa and others. The empirical focus on Danish, Norwegian and Swedish influence in the polar regions during the twentieth century embraces a diverse array of themes, from the role of science in policy and diplomacy to the tensions between nationalism and internationalism, with clear relevance to the important role science plays in contemporary discussions about Nordic engagement with the polar regions.
The article examines the status system of the local academic community of St. Petersburg sociologists. The list of most cited authors was obtained from citation analysis of selected Russian sociological journals. The results suggest that the status system is divided in isolated segments with few citation exchanges between different segments. Each part of the sociological community produces its own list of influentials. With a few exceptions there are no authors central for the whole community. Even the embeddedness of various segments in the same local space does not stimulate circulation of attention between different parts of the community.
The article provides a brief overview of life and works by I. Kh. Ozerov (1869-1942), a professor of financial law at Moscow and St. Petersburg State Universities, in terms oh his contribution into financial and legal studies in Russia at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. The article precedes the publication of a work by I. Kh. Ozerov On the research methods in financial studies which formulate the sociological methods of investigating the financial relationships.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.