"PostNauka" is a project (quite similar to the global set of conferences "TED") about modern fundamental science and the scientists who create it. The website was established in 2012 as a platform, participating in the popularization of scientific knowledge. More than 3000 materials were published on it. Surprisingly, no one has tried to carry out the analysis of these materials until now. We decided to fill this gap by conducting our own research on PostNauka. An inspiring example to be followed was the performance by Sean Gourley and Eric Berlow, who showed the map of themes similarity in the TED-speeches and the way new topics were born on the periphery of global themes. We conducted the same type of analysis for PostNauka to show the existence or the lack of links between topics, to define the extent of interdisciplinarity of the project and to check the rightness of sections proposed by the website. We took all video-materials transcripts published on www.postnauka. ru. Two types of methods were combined for analysis: semantic analysis methods and network analysis. As a result, we got the mind-maps of PostNauka materials. They demonstrate how the materials are tied, which disciplines are exceled and how they are sorting with the official classification of the website.
We are faced with a contradiction in the approach to professional careers of scientists and engineers. On the one hand, we have an emerging environment, characterized by uncertainty, instability in regard to the status and the prospects of various groups employed in this sphere, growing mobility and diversity of career types, as well as bases for differentiation of their typology. On the other hand, the integrity and biography of a career as a process of accumulating knowledge, professional experience, resources of social networks and statuses remains an important requirement. And, from this viewpoint, it can only be long-term and consistent. Establishing a favorable professional environment remains the main task in resolving this contradiction. The impact of various external factors on professional careers, including the science and technology sector, is becoming an urgent problem within the framework of various concepts and disciplines. Conceptual accuracy and thoroughness in the examination of external career factors distinguishes primarily the approaches to social psychology, sociology, management and organizational studies. This allows us to pose the question of infrastructure of professional careers in the field of science and technology. The conceptual framework from the viewpoint of various disciplines enriches our perceptions of it. This presentation offers an attempt to raise the problem of interdisciplinary interaction in relation to the study of the potential for regulating professional careers in the field of science and technology. In the Russian context, its various aspects may need to be emphasized. We must take into account the specifics of the Russian situation, which during the recent decades was differentiated by the radical disruption of continuity, as well as the erosion of previous models of the work force regeneration in the field of science and technology; substantiation and establishment of new ones for more effective organization of activities in this field. In general, the analysis helps identify three levels of such infrastructure: a macro level (state policy in regard to science); middle level (on the level of a particular institution and organizations) and family level. This report utilizes data based on research projects supported by The Russian Foundation for Humanities grant № 16–03–50220)
This paper discusses factors which account for origins and directions of international student flows. It aims at mapping student mobility systematically with social network analysis tools. By looking at UNESCO and Russian Bureau of Statistics data it explores the effects of sending country size, indicators of economic development (GDP per capita) and institutional closeness. As a result, the author argues that belonging of the two countries to one political structure in the past (e. g. colonial empire) and institutional export from one of these countries (colonial power) to another (dependent territory) is highly significant for the emergence of a return student flow to former center of political structure.
The article considers «Popular Science» within the context of modern theories of scientific communications, media and society relations. We analyze models of scientific communication by Massimiano Bucchi – models of deficit, of dialogue and public participation (engagement) in scientific knowledge production and dissemination processes. We also describe some examples and forms of up to date scientific communications and scientific knowledge popularization.
The article is devoted to Thomas Hughes’ conception of Large Technological Systems. According to him, the activities of different professionals, such as engineers, scientists, etc., should be described as a seamless web. They have some pragmatical goals and during their realization, they do not adhere to any tough separation concerning types of knowledge or professional borders. To grasp and describe this seamless web Hughes develops the conception of Large Technological Systems in which social and technical elements of a system are inseparably linked. Technological systems are created for certain pragmatical goals or to solve some problem, which is usually concerned with reordering of material world in order to make it more productive in terms of goods and services. According to Hughes, modern large technological systems seem to evolve in accordance with some pattern. The history of evolving or expanding of a system might be presented in the phases in which the following types of activity predominate: invention, development, innovation, transfer, and growth, competition, and consolidation. As systems grow up, they become inert. Though technological systems are socially designed and in the beginning strongly depend on various groups of people, further, they begin to exert a soft determinism on other systems and groups. Such a scheme does not contradict with social con structivism, and at the same time does not support belief in a technical determinism. Despite further criticism of Hughes’s ideas, he was one of the first who introduced a very important idea for STS in general that as society shapes technologies, so technologies shape society. There is a mutual influence between them. Therefore Hughes remains an important author for this discipline.
Since R. K. Merton there have been numerous attempts to show the relevance of moral questions to the problem of scientific activity. Their emergence and development, which coincided with the growth of broader interest in moral issues in the social sciences and was partly due to actual historical events, changes in the structure of science and its interaction with society, led to an opportunity to speak not only of «indirect» and «derived» moral character of the scientist's activity, in Durkheim's terms, but also of the scientists' morality. With a focus on addressing the process of scientific knowledge production, the article provides an overview of the current approaches to discovering the morality of scientists. The article offers an insight into ideas that can be used as one of the sources of intuitions and hypotheses for further research. In this regard, it is shown that the relevance of interest in the morality of scientists requires updating and strategies for its analysis, with a discussion of existing tools in the sociological repertoire that can form the basis of contemporary analysis of morality in science. A set of modern conceptions of the morality of scientists and their possible reflection in empirical research is then presented.
The given work is devoted the analysis of factors which brake development of personnel potential of a modern Russian science. In connection with necessity of transition to active use of knowledge as source of growth for the answer to a question on why the eff orts undertaken by the state, dont solve a personnel problem in a science, attempt to use the approaches useful in an explanation of the new phenomena in real sector of economy, but earlier inapplicable to specifi city of scientifi c activity is made.
In article on materials of questionnaire and interview are investigated of comfortableness of public transport for residents of Nizhny Novgorod and how new technologies are built in transport system of the city. The conclusion is drawn that now wireless technologies inefficiently work in transport infrastructure. Though time spent in public transport becomes more comfortable and not such useless, the volume of this time could be reduced due to competent embedding of new technologies in system of public transport.
A bibliometric crisis is defined as a more or less marked decline of basic bibliometric indicators interrupting a preceding period of stable growth or stagnation. The crises of 1930–1931 and 1941–1942 revealed from the previous studies (Kozhevnikov and Petrosova, 1991) were analysed in depth on the basis of the data on the publication of biological periodicals in USSR from 1917 through 1949 and a set of more detailed data on selected journals (number of copies and pages printed per year) covering the period from 1921 through 1958. It is shown that even though the scale of decline of 1930–1931 is comparable to that of 1941–1942, the fine structure of the two crises (journal origin and extinction rates, dynamics of the number of pages and copies printed per year) is different. While the former can be considered as a part of a restructurisation crisis (despite a peak of extinction, the new journals were founded at a stable rate, the surviving journals increased their volume and number of copies), the latter triggered a general wartime depression (after a peak of extinction, both extinction and origin rates dropped to zero, the numbers of both copies and pages decreased not to be recovered until late 1940s — 1950s). The crisis of 1930–1931 had a deeper impact on the body of biological periodicals than that of 1941–1942: the continuity measured with the Jaccard similarity index is twice as high for the latter than for the former.
This article is about technocratic myphologies of the soviet times.
The study is based on a dataset formed on the basis of the Encyclopaedia of Ancient Natural Scientists (London, 2008) with significant revisions and modifications. The selection criteria, problems of demarkation of sciences (mathemata) from natural philosophy (physike) and practical arts (technai) are discussed. The dataset includes entries on 415 persons, pseudonyms and anonymous treatises associated with at least one of the six mathematical "disciplines": mathematics, astronomy, geography, harmonics, optics, and mechanics. Five phases of the population dynamics of sciences of the antiquity were identified: the rapid growth phase (600–350 BCE), first plateau at the level of 60–70 contemporaries (350–50 BCE), decline (from 50 BCE through the beiginning of the current Era), second plateau at the level of 25–40 contemporaries (0–500 CE), final decline (500–600 CE). The growth and decline phases are characterised by a concerted rise or decline of most populated disciplines, while the plateaus are composed of fluctuations of the different disciplinary communities counterbalancing each other. Patterns of population dynamics of different disciplines are discussed separately.