Появление домашних питомцев в городской семье: развитие детей или поддержание семейной системы
Along with widespread belief about the positive impact of pets on the development and psychological well-being of children, increasingly works evaluate the role of pets in the development and maintenance of psychological well-being of children more cautiously and deliberately. There is a growing conviction that the specific characteristics of the family simultaneously lead to the acquisition of pets and a specific course of socio-emotional development of children. The resolution of the contradictions associated with the presence of both positive and negative effects of pets for children is, from our point of view, the notion that pets are an integral and important part of a family system. We assume that pets can appear in families to reduce the anxiety associated with the normative crises family system.
Levels of child malnutrition in India have fallen only slowly during the 1990s, despite significant economic growth and considerable expenditure on the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme, of which the major component is supplementary feeding for malnourished children. To begin to unravel this puzzle, this article assesses the programme’s placement and its outcomes, using NFHS data from 1992 and 1998. The authors find that programme placement is clearly regressive across states. The states with the greatest need for the programme — the poor Northern states which account for nearly half of India’s population and which suffer from high levels of child malnutrition — have the lowest programme coverage and the lowest budgetary allocations from the central government. Programme placement within states is more progressive: poorer and larger villages have a higher probability of having an ICDS centre, as do those with other development programmes or community associations. In terms of outcomes, the authors find little evidence of programme impact on child nutrition status in villages with ICDS centres.
We use working memory (WM) to follow directions, figure out how much things cost and keep up with a conversation. Keeping up with a conversation at the same time as summing up our groceries cost can be a taunting task for most of us. This is multi-tasking and there is a cognitive cost associated with it. Such cognitive challenge is in part due to limitations of WM capacity. The most widely accepted definition of WM is that it is an ability used to manipulate and hold information in mind for brief periods of time. What we clearly know about WM capacity is that it improves dramatically over childhood and adolescence. Researchers, however, are still engaged in a lively debate aiming to better understand how we should measure WM and what its limits are.
Children’s cognitive abilities improve significantly over childhood and adolescence. We know from behavioral research that core cognitive processes such as working memory and mental attention improve significantly across development. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows for investigating the typically developing, living brain in action. In the last twenty years we have learned a great deal about brain correlates associated with how adults hold and manipulate information in mind, however, neurocognitive correlates across development remain inconsistent. We present developmental fMRI findings on cognitive processes such as working memory and mental attention and discuss methodological and theoretical issues in the assessment of cognitive limitations in the visual spatial and verbal domains. We also review data from typical and atypical development and emphasize the unique contribution parametric measures can make in understanding neurocognitive correlates of typical and atypical development.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.