Лонгитюдное исследование динамики успешности решения студентами аналитических, творческих и практических заданий
Profiles of successful training in the framework of a separate basic discipline were investigated on the student sample (n = 150). The longitudinal and summary indicators of successful training were obtained using experts ratings and IRT-approach on the knowledge testing results that was carried out on the basis of student performance of closed and open tasks that require displaying academic intelligence, practical intelligence and creativity. Hierarchical linear models of growth curves of learning success demonstrated the heterogeneity of the dynamics of change in successful performance of various types of tasks. Four basic profiles of student successful training were obtained using the Q-factor analysis; each factor is characterized by a combination of strong and weak sides of the students. The similar lines of development – their consistent growth – of analytical and practical training success were shown in a small longitudinal study. Successful performance in open creative tasks has a fundamentally different dynamics: a creative usage of accumulated knowledge while working with unspecified material at first sharply decreases and then increases again towards the end of the training.
School engagement influences multiple educational outcomes, including academic performance of students. Research shows that engaged students are more likely to demonstrate improved knowledge in various subjects and higher academic scores. Critically, school engagement assessments are usually performed in adolescence using self-ratings and fewer using teacher-ratings. Our project examines the relation of school engagement using self- and teacher-ratings and academic performance among primary school students in Russia. Specifically, we investigate which components of school engagement (i.e., behavioral, emotional or cognitive) is a stronger predictor of academic performance from both student’s and teacher’s perspective. Our findings can inform educational practice in understanding the mechanisms underlying academic performance and designing interventions to improve it.
Future representations during transition into adulthood were investigated. 90 senior pupils from three different development contexts participated in the study, namely, respondents with diagnosis “infantile cerebral paralysis” (ICP), orphans, and normative adolescents. The “Purpose in life” scale (adapted by D.A. Leontiev) and essay “My future” were used. Longitudinal study included three measurements, when respondents were aged 15-16, 17, and 18. Two hypotheses were set up: the future representations content and dynamics depended on a) development context, and b) transition phase. The both hypotheses confirmed. The future representations have been becoming more negative in participants with ICP, contradictory and non-realistic in orphans, and positive and realistic in normative group during transition. In addition, future representations changes differed in the three groups very strong. In participants with ICP, the most intensive change was in phase between the first and second measurement, in normative group – in the end of the crisis, and in orphans the dynamics was all slowed.
Over the past century, educational psychologists and researchers have posited many theories to explain how individuals learn, i.e. how they acquire, organize and deploy knowledge and skills. The 20th century can be considered the century of psychology on learning and related fields of interest (such as motivation, cognition, metacognition etc.) and it is fascinating to see the various mainstreams of learning, remembered and forgotten over the 20th century and note that basic assumptions of early theories survived several paradigm shifts of psychology and epistemology. Beyond folk psychology and its naïve theories of learning, psychological learning theories can be grouped into some basic categories, such as behaviorist learning theories, connectionist learning theories, cognitive learning theories, constructivist learning theories, and social learning theories.
Learning theories are not limited to psychology and related fields of interest but rather we can find the topic of learning in various disciplines, such as philosophy and epistemology, education, information science, biology, and – as a result of the emergence of computer technologies – especially also in the field of computer sciences and artificial intelligence. As a consequence, machine learning struck a chord in the 1980s and became an important field of the learning sciences in general. As the learning sciences became more specialized and complex, the various fields of interest were widely spread and separated from each other; as a consequence, even presently, there is no comprehensive overview of the sciences of learning or the central theoretical concepts and vocabulary on which researchers rely.
The Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning provides an up-to-date, broad and authoritative coverage of the specific terms mostly used in the sciences of learning and its related fields, including relevant areas of instruction, pedagogy, cognitive sciences, and especially machine learning and knowledge engineering. This modern compendium will be an indispensable source of information for scientists, educators, engineers, and technical staff active in all fields of learning. More specifically, the Encyclopedia provides fast access to the most relevant theoretical terms provides up-to-date, broad and authoritative coverage of the most important theories within the various fields of the learning sciences and adjacent sciences and communication technologies; supplies clear and precise explanations of the theoretical terms, cross-references to related entries and up-to-date references to important research and publications. The Encyclopedia also contains biographical entries of individuals who have substantially contributed to the sciences of learning; the entries are written by a distinguished panel of researchers in the various fields of the learning sciences.
The chapter deals with the ambiguities of informal entrepreneurial activity and its specific contextual framing under transition in Russia as an example of a fragile mid-income economy. It stresses the transition-specific reasons of its sustainability, contrary to the most current literature explaining it as a the Soviet heritage etc. (the 'path dependence' argument). The author uses the results of the two first waves of the own longitudinal survey of 13 Muscovite entrepreneurs and start-ups (2013-2014). The paper contains some policy recommendations.
This article aims to answer three questions concerning (1) the prevalence of the mismatch between student expectations and real university life, (2) factors influencing this mismatch, and (3) the effect of the expectation-reality mismatch on academic performance during the first year of study at university. The results of this study suggest that a large share of first-year students overestimate their future academic experience. However, this mismatch cannot be predicted by personal background characteristics and motivation at the beginning of study. According to the findings, three mismatch characteristics affect students’ academic outcomes: (1) a mismatch between expected and real grades, (2) a mismatch between expected and real levels of interest in studying, and (3) a mismatch between expected and real time for extracurricular activities at university.
Proceedings of the Moscow regional conference of The International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) and Yandex are presented.
Some Internet stores manage to charge prices that are significantly higher than market averages, therefore, obtaining some sort of price premium. This paper is dedicated to building a model that can be used to explain and predict a typical price premium that an Internet store charges for a specific product based on the information about the characteristics of the store and the features of the market for this product. Such models can provide support for pricing and assortment decisions: in particular, they allow detecting products that a store is likely to sell with the highest or the lowest markup based on price premia that are charged by stores with similar characteristics on similar markets.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.