Developing auditory comprehension subtests of the Russian Aphasia Test
There is a lack of modern quantitative language assessment tests in Russian, integrating neuropsychological and psychometric traditions, and allowing to specify the type and severity of linguistic deficits in individuals with different aphasia profiles. In response to these clinical and research needs, a novel standardized aphasia test – the Russian Aphasia Test (RAT) – is currently being developed.
Abstract. There is currently a great need for modern, standardized neuropsychological tests for language assessment in Russian speakers with aphasia. Our group is working on the development of the Russian Aphasia Test (RAT). Within the scope of this work, two subtests for single-word comprehension of nouns and verbs were developed considering contemporary models of language processing and principles of psychometrics. The task for both subtests was spoken word-to-picture matching. The subtests were normed on individuals with aphasia (n = 45) and a control group (n = 30). This resulted in the final set of 30 diagnostic trials for nouns and verbs matched on relevant psychometric properties which are sensitive to language impairments for both fluent and non-fluent types of aphasia. This set of trials will be included in the final version of the RAT.
Currently there is a need for standardized language assessment test in Russian. Our group has developed Russian Aphasia Test (RAT) based on modern psycholinguistic models and psychometric principles, taking into account existing standardized tests in other languages. RAT allows to separately assess each level of linguistic processing: from phonemic perception to discourse. Here we present the design of the test and the first results of its approbation in groups of neurologically healthy participants and individuals with aphasia. Preliminary results demonstrated that the test is sensitive to language deficits and their severity. Thus, RAT is a practical instrument for language assessment in aphasia which can be used both in clinical practice and for research purposes. At present test standardization in a large group of participants with and without aphasia is on-going with the goal of developing appropriate clinical and age norms.
There is a need for modern neurolinguisitcstandardized test for language assessment in aphasia and related neurogenic language disorders in Russian. Our research group is currently working on the development of the Russian Aphasia Test (RAT)that is based on contemporary models of language processing and principles of psychometrics.Language production subtests assess oral speech at each of the linguistic levels. The material for each task was selected and balanced considering modern theoretical models of language and takes into account important psycholinguistic factors. For many tasks, there is no standardized analogues in Russian with extensive, theoretically justified and carefully selected linguistic material. The subtests were piloted in a group of neurologically healthy individuals (n=20) and patients with different types of aphasia (n=20). As expected patients with aphasia performed worse compared to age-matched healthy controls across all tasks. Items demonstrating high sensitivity and reliability were selected to be included in the final version of the test.
Background: There are a limited number of aphasia language tests in the majority of the world’s commonly spoken languages. Furthermore, few aphasia tests in languages other than English have been standardised and normed, and few have supportive psychometric data pertaining to reliability and validity. The lack of standardised assessment tools across many of the world’s languages poses serious challenges to clinical practice and research in aphasia. Aims: The current review addresses this lack of assessment tools by providing conceptual and statistical guidance for the development of aphasia assessment tools and establishment of their psychometric properties. Main Contribution: A list of aphasia tests in the 20 most widely spoken languages is included. The pitfalls of translating an existing test into a new language versus creating a new test are outlined. Factors to be considered in determining test content are discussed. Further, a description of test items corresponding to different language functions is provided, with special emphasis on implementing important controls in test design. Next, a broad review of principal psychometric properties relevant to aphasia tests is presented, with specific statistical guidance for establishing psychometric properties of standardised assessment tools. Conclusions: This article may be used to help guide future work on developing, standardising and validating aphasia language tests. The considerations discussed are also applicable to the development of standardised tests of other cognitive functions.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
The results of research of different areas of personality of homeless men: values, life attitudes, activity, homelessness area is presents. The data indicate the presence of a number of characteristics inherent in varying degrees all homeless people. The data obtained can be used to build an effective program of psychological re-socialization of homeless people.
The present article continues the investigation of the Soqotri verbal system undertaken by the Russian-Soqotri fieldwork team. The article focuses on the so-called “weak” and “geminated” roots in the basic stem. The investigation is based on the analysis of full paradigms (perfect, imperfect and jussive) of more than 170 “weak” and “geminated” Soqotri verbs.