Влияют ли на родительскую самоэффективность разногласия с родственниками по поводу правил воспитания и ухода за ребенком?
Existing studies show that parental self-efficacy is an important factor of positive parental practices and child development. In this paper we focus on factors associated with level of maternal self-efficacy. Features of modern motherhood (intensive motherhood, ‘parental determinism’, anxiety and high risk-consciousness) suggest that one of these factors is disagreement over child-rearing rules or parenting principles between a mother and her relatives. Our main research question is wheather disagreement affects parental self-efficacy beliefs of mothers. The study is based on an online survey of 670 mothers of pre-school children and 50 semi-structured interviews with mothers. According to the survey disagreements over child-rearing rules are frequent – about 20% of mothers say that family and friends have criticized them for the way they care for a child; about 30% - that it is difficult to find an agreement with relatives about principles and rules of parenting, 25% - that they have to limit the time a child spends with family, because of these disagreements. The proportion of mothers who noticed that they have disagreements with relatives over child-rearing rules is lower among working mothers and higher among mothers who support some of the popular child-rearing theories. Our analysis also shows that disagreements have a negative impact on parental self-efficacy.
The article briefly discusses the changes associated with parenthood and parental experience. One of the important characteristics of modern parenthood is the diversification of parental experience. There are many different discourses of parenthood, and specific parent needs to determine his or her own position. Educational programs for parents, training and courses help to solve this problem. Internal personal resources are important in the development of such programs, in particular parental self-efficacy is a promising concept for research and practice.
Motherhood got into focus of social researchers in 1960—1970s. Since that time it is a rich and rapidly developing debate. This article provides an overview of contemporary Western sociological discussion about motherhood. The author identifies three key vectors of research of motherhood: a public/private motherhood, “bad”/“good” motherhood, oppression/possibilities of motherhood. In the first discussion researchers are focused on the production of motherhood in public discourses and institutions, they consider as well how public ideals of motherhood affect women’s experience and identification. The significant part of the discussion consists of the research devoted to the study of combining work and motherhood by women. The second area of research examines how women are labeled as good or bad mothers, how women are proving for themselves the correctness of their own motherhood, and how they redefine the stigmatizing label of “bad” mother at the level of narration and practices. And the last area discussion, deeply rooted in feminism, is built around the analysis of cultural oppression to motherhood and of the subjective and objective resources of motherhood in a woman’s life. The author understands the genre limitations of the review and does not claim to cover the whole rich and contradictory discussion. She offers the reader her own view of the contemporary debate about motherhood, highlighting important, from her point of view, conceptions, research categories, and interpretations.
Based on the data of European Social Survey we made a research of the opinion of the middle class on the welfare and social assistance, the main functions of the state in resolving a number of social issues in different countries with different models of social policy. The results of investigation showed that the population's vision of the role of the government in solution of the social problems, as well as of its general functions is different in various countries. Besides we can speak about a certain difference of attitudes of the middle class and working class regarding the social support program.
social policies, Middle class, working class, Public opinion, welfare
This article is devoted to the issue of assistance to the elderly from the interfamily support network and the participation of the elderly in interfamily exchanges. Data of representative surveys (RLMS-HSE, 2013, Integrated monitoring of population life conditions in Russia, 2011) show the importance of relatives’ support for older people. Relatives provide not only material aid which significantly exceeds the amount of social aid, but also a broad array of necessary services including psychological support in adapting to a new stage of the life cycle after finishing labor activity.
We define the target group of our study and its socio-demographic characteristics, including the distinguishing features of regional location. The main focus of the study is the most vulnerable group of older people: persons living alone and married couples living apart. Due to underdevelopment of the service industry for the elderly, support aid from relatives and neighbors is vital for this group of older people.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.