Влияние миграции на рынок труда в Москве: представления москвичей и реальность
The article is drawn on a study of families of migrants, having school-age children, from Central Asia. Transnational practices of migrants are closely tied to integration processes, and this is refl ected in generational differences. In some families, children that, unlike their parents, go or used to go to a Russian school, try to distance themselves from their parents’ generation, refuse to identify with it, and do not want to speak the native language of their parents. In some ways, these trends are a consequence of parentage practices that orient children toward the local social milieu and encourage the use of Russian. Despite the significance of transnational practices in the life of migrant families, the outcome of the study demonstrates the importance of examining the intergenerational dynamics in the incorporation process.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.