Impact of Migration on the Labor Market in Moscow: The Muscovite Perspective
The article is written based on the project of the Center for Migration Research, carried out in 2013 with the support of the Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights in Moscow project “Protecting the Rights of Muscovites in Mass Migration.” Data from the quantitative survey (conducted in the summer of 2013 with a sample size of 800 respondents, i.e., 600 people in Moscow and 200 migrant workers), and expert interviews, focus groups with Moscow employers, as well as official statistic were used. The study assessed the attitudes of Muscovites to both external and internal migrants from regions of Russia.
The migratory situation in Russia in the 1990-2000th years is considered. Separate types of migration are analysed: repatriation, labor migration, internal migration
Demographic growth is an important factor of migration processes. Nowadays, its influence is best felt in sub-Saharan Africa, where the tempo of demographic growth is the highest in the world. The chapter discusses the impact demographic growth makes specifically on labor migration from Africa to economically developed nations.
The first volume of the series “Demography. Sociology. Economics” is a collaboration of Russian scientists from the Center for Social Demography and Economic Sociology Institute of Social and Political Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, Russian Federation) and Turkish scientists from the Center for Migration Studies, University of Koch (Mr. Istanbul, Republic of Turkey). It presents research papers of young Russian and foreign scientists who took part in the international scientific and practical Summer School "International migration in the post-Soviet space: Challenges, models and effects", which was held at Koç University in Istanbul in June-July 2014. The book reflects the results of theoretical and empirical research of young scientists from eight countries: Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, Poland, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, and Brazil. The book recommendation for students, postgraduate students, teachers, scientists and experts in demographic and migration sphere.
The article analyzes the temporary labor migration in contemporary Russia. Sources of information - data FMS of Russia, LFS sample surveys. Under the temporary migrants are understood not only foreigners, but also Russians, engaged in labor activities outside the region of residence.
The authors examine the processes of internal and international labor migration in Russia. Available sources of statistical information and a survey of studies allow us to define them as quantitatively comparable, but having pronounced regional differences. Despite the gravitation of both internal and international migrants to the largest cities, Russian temporary labor migrants more often go to work in the regions of the North and the East of the country. Russians and foreign migrants complement each other in the regional labor markets rather than compete. The results of the recent research conducted by Institute for Social Analysis and Prediction Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, used in the article, allow us to state that the social and economic effects of international and internal labor migration are similar. At the same time the significance of migration for the economy of households and local budgets in Russia is underestimated.
The article has evaluated the influence of labor migration on the prospects for socio-economic development (SED) within different Russian Federation (RF) regions, with a focus on Nizhny Novgorod. It notes that labor shortages are a function of the country's complex demographic condition, calling labor migration a significant factor in the RF SED. At this stage, the commentary refocuses on the main characteristics of labor migration in Nizhny Novgorod region: ethnic composition, qualifications, industrial requisites and ongoing needs for worker employment. The critique also delves into the projected contribution of migrants to both the gross regional product and the regional budget, exploring the territory's projected goal of attracting labor migrants. In the course of the discussion, the document has identified the aspects impeding comprehensive SED, primarily the host country's ratio of migrants to the general population. In parallel, the paper has provided a study into Nizhny Novgorod's balance of students to labor migrants, claiming that the relationship exhibits certain potential risks that could negatively impact on the projected regional SED. The blueprint posits, in conclusion, that the RF has to adopt certain migrant-worker-related mechanisms to improve the operational efficiency of its worker-integration procedures.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.