"Транспортное поведение", "подвижность", "мобильность": к вопросу о концептуализации терминов
Foreign experience was studied as part of the Russian travel behavior monitoring study. This paper aims to outline conceptual and methodological differencies between ―travel behavior‖, ―mobility‖ and ―motility‖ terms. The results of analysis allow us to define two projected paths in conceptualization of the key terms. The first, so-called ―management‖ stream, took into account the ―motility‖ concept. On the other hand we outlined the ―academic‖ concept and the fundamental meaning of ―mobility‖. But the widespread use results in terminological confusion. As a result, we treat the conceptualization problem as the main issue: how can we differentiate between these terms, especially in the presence of the ―travel behaviour‖ term. We define the ―travel behaviour‖ as a synthesis of two prospects. The deficit of explanation opportunities are explained through analysis of ―management‖ concept. But ―academic‖ tools seem useful for theory and methodology of transportation studies. Moreover, the understanding of travel behaviour in ―management‖ stream is slightly shifting from economics to social issues.
The report addresses the methodological challenge of studying judicial reasoning in a Codified Systems of such Western countries as France and Germany in the 19th century and Russia in the late 19th early 20th century. The difference in style of Western European and Russian decision should be explained by taking into account national legal consciousness along with black letter rules of the codes and statutes.
This is the Proceedings Book of the International Conference on Foreign Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (FLTAL) held in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, May 9-10, 2014. The FLTAL Conference aims to bring together researchers, practitioners, and educators with interests in language teaching and linguistics at all levels from around the world.
The paper provides a review of present-day studies on the problem of pilots’ performance in various flight conditions, with a focus on their methodology. Conceptual frameworks of the studies (concepts of working capacity, functional state and mental workload) are discussed, and different objective and subjective measures and methods used are described. Eye-tracking is regarded with special attention as a promising tool able to examine the internal mechanisms of pilots’ performance. The paper hints to the importance of systemic methodological approach to pilots’ performance assessment and proposes the direction for further research in the field of aviation psychophysiology.
Education by observation: Students in research process The article argues for a new technology in teaching students of state and municipal management. The method is based on direct observation and description of management practices by students who lack any systematic research skills (the «naive observer» method). The authors ague that the use of this method allows to solve two types of problem at once: a pedagogical one and a scientific one. Students observe, and provide a description of, facts of the Russian provincial life without any interpretation whatsoever, which allows to obtain a picture of the social life that is closer to the reality than the one obtained by use of interpretational schemes of sociologists and journalists. It is only the latter picture that is currently used by the authorities as a basis for management decisions and for developing projects of social changes.
In this work the problem of learning and development of creativity with a view to the position of reflexive psychology, akmeology and pedagogics in the context of the human capital analysis in the conditions of modern society globalization is raised. The theme is urgent from the practical point of view in demand of a creative personality under conditions of the economic crisis and at the same time it is actual, because it interprets creativity in a new way according to interdisciplinary approach. The author emphasizes that a reflexively-creative potential is considered to be the backbone factor of professional and innovative activity in modern social space. On basis of philosophical foundations' analysis of psychology of creativity we theoretically build the conceptual model of reflexive creativity and we also examine the precedents of its psychology-pedagogical development in the secondary and high education (in case of reflexive-psycological support).
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.