Земельная реформа в России в 1990-2000-е годы, или как в ходе ведомственных реорганизаций «реформировали» земельную реформу
The paper provides an overview of the land reform in Russia's recent history. Analysis of land reform, which started in 1990, shows what actions and what logic led the land sector in the state in which it was at the finish line of the quarter-century reform marathon. The reform process was not linear, it highlighted the steps differing objectives and strategies to achieve them. Land reform is presented as a struggle of different political forces, which were reflected in the redistribution of functions between agencies in lobbying for appointment to senior positions promoted various commands. The authors conclude about the gradual displacement of state regulation of land relations, the deliberate destruction of the land management as a basis for the development of land resources.
The article is devoted to the policy of the South african governemnt in the sphere of enthno-racial relations and state and nation building. It analyses the ideological basis of racially tainted legislation and the text of the corresponding laws and of official documents of the ANC and the governemn.t
The basic sector both Russian, and international agriculture market is grain market. The level of market’s conditions is important significant of economical reform and agriculture policy realiza-tion. It includes all elements of market relations.
Russian grain market has enough perspectives for future development, but some problems will have been decided yet. One of the most important problems is to organize effective stock and non-stock exchange trading, to create insurance instruments, for using by traders in the future. As a result real market prices and opportunities for sale agricultural production will be achieved.
The article gives a complex study of grain market in Russia, marketing and analysis of this economical sector, and defines its potential.
This report serves as a guide to the agricultural policy shifts made by the Government of Jamaica that would be desirable in the context of the changing role of agriculture. It focuses on the central question of how to create within the context of fiscal austerity an enabling framework for agriculture that results in a more competitive sector, with prospects for growth and poverty alleviation in the future. The three major studies underpinning this report are an Agricultural Sector Support Analysis, a Climat Change Report and an Agricultural Taxation Report. This report synthesizes and expands on the elements in these studies that are most relevant to the policy choices facing the government in the context of its tax reform initiative.
Agriculture policy has, since the fall of the Soviet Union, arguably never been as important in Russian life as it is today. Having taken the path of import substitution in 2014, Russia now faces the very complex challenge of providing food products for its population through predominantly national production. And yet the Russian agricultural sector is, notoriously, an extremely inertial part of the national economy. Successes in this sector have resulted only from gradual efforts accumulating over time. And still the fundamental problem of Russian agricultural policy remains, in the early twenty-first century as in many periods past, its inconsistency and excessive dependence on and exposure to high politics, as driven by geopolitical collisions and by transformations in Russia’s internal development model.
One of the most important challenges of the modern world is that population’s access to vital resources, notably food, is severely limited, but these resources are more and more claimed by Asian countries as their standard of living is growing and the transformation of food consumption patterns takes place. Because of the Asian economic growth Russia gets a great opportunity of using its natural resources.
The paper deals with the goals and importance of land management activities in the organization of rational land use and protection. Author gives a detailed analysis of the legal regulation of land development and planning at the federal, regional and local level.
Article is devoted to the cadastral valuation of residential lands in Russia zoned for housing construction. While using hedonic model, the factors of social infrastructe provision are used. Within the research some serious metodological and technical problems are defined and variants of improvement are proposed. For analysis the results of cadastral valuation fulfilled by the Federal Cadaster Center "Zemlya" were used.
This book examines the history of reforms and major state interventions affecting Russian agriculture: the abolition of serfdom in 1861, the Stolypin reforms, the New Economic Policy (NEP), the collectivization, the Khrushchev reforms, and finally the farm enterprise privatization in the early 1990s. It shows a pattern emerging from a political imperative in imperial, Soviet, and post-Soviet regimes, and it describes how these reforms were justified in the name of the national interest during severe crises – rapid inflation, military defeat, mass strikes, rural unrest, and/or political turmoil. It looks at the consequences of adversity in the economic environment for rural behavior after reform and at longrun trends. It has chapters on property rights, rural organization, and technological change. It provides a new database for measuring agricultural productivity from 1861 to 1913 and updates these estimates to the present. This book is a study of the policies aimed at reorganizing rural production and of their effectiveness in transforming institutions.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.