Механизмы производства инаковости в дискурсе: теория и методология анализа (на примере одного кинотекста)
The present article analyses the process behind the production of otherness (othering) in the discourse of modern Russian cinema. The article begins by highlighting the main ways of understanding othering, which is based principally on the systematization of theoretical and empirical studies. This includes describing strategies and techniques for representating the Other, preparation of a list of steps and signs indicating how othering is processed in discourse. This reveals the following aspects: 1) opposition (using binary categories), 2) distancing (strengthening borders), 3) building a hierarchy (hierarhization) and 4) the submission and destruction of the Other. Next, the developed theoretical and methodological scheme was applied to provide an analysis of how otherness is represented in Russian cinema, particularly through a case study of the movie "Class correction" in 2014, which was directed by I.Tverdovskyy. In summary, the following othering mechanisms were identified: stereotyping, objectification, marginalization, shaming, feminization, exotization, and coping strategies as: charismatization, subjectification, dehierarhization an the use of humor, parody and protest.
Current empirical sociology features a limited set of indicators for associating individuals with certain social groups (classes or strata). European sociologists rely heavily on such an informative descriptor as occupation, which has become institutionalized and thus produces certain requirements of human, social and cultural resources for individuals to perform the underlying functions. However, this indicator manifests at least two substantial restrictions: first, it is natural that certain types of economic activity are historically less stable than the social classes with which they are associated; and second, Russian history demonstrates that in a developed society the system of occupations is consistent with its institutional set-up and system of values, which are transferred from generation to generation. In Russia specific occupations are associated with a certain character of labour yet not with particular status characteristics that should result from the corporate nature of professional associations. In fact, in that society there exists a unique form of social stratification, in which a hierarchy of social estates dominates elements of true class differentiation.
The concept of social inequality, its nature and forms.
From an international comparative perspective, this third book in the prestigious ‘eduLIFE Lifelong Learning Series’ provides a thorough investigation into how social inequalities arise during individuals’ secondary schooling careers. Paying particular attention to the role of social origin and prior performance, it focuses on tracking and differentiation in secondary schooling, examining the short- and long-term effects on inequality of opportunities. It looks at ways in which differentiation in secondary education might produce and reproduce social inequalities in educational opportunities and educational attainment.
Models of Secondary Education and Social Inequality brings together a number of cross-national and country studies conducted by well-known experts in the field. In contrast to existing empirical research, this book reconstructs individuals’ educational careers step-by-step, providing a longitudinal perspective essential for an appropriate understanding of the dynamics of inequalities in secondary education. The international viewpoint allows for an illuminating comparison in light of the different models, rules and procedures that regulate admission selection and learning in different countries.
This book will be of great interest to policymakers, researchers and professional experts in the field, including sociologists, pedagogues, international political scientists and economists, and also serves as a major text for postgraduate and postdoctoral courses.
Analysis of social exclusion in city space.
Internаtional Sociological Association, Working Group on Local and Global Relations (WG 01)
Sociological research can and should become a scientific basis for formation of social policy, allowing to mitigate the growing negative phenomena in society. Study of the causes of social inequality, tendencies of deepening or weakening of signs of differentiation society, international experience of state and public response negative social indicators, national and regional practice of influencing various manifistations of inequality of both local and national character - the most important directions of the fundamental and applied sociological science.
The collection presents reports of more than 1300 sociologists on various aspects of social inequality and social justice.
The article presents the experience of constructing of the social problems by students and teacher within the sociological course. Last years the course “Sociology of Social Problems” includes optional actionist part with a claims-making concerning some situations. The article describes actions made by the participants of the course with the aim to include in the city agenda such problems as the destroying of one of the famous historical buildings in Kazan (Karl Fuchs House), the inaccessibility of urban space for disabled people and the imposing of the music and ads on the pedestrians. The influence of such constructionist projects and their alleged significance for the students are discussed. In conclusion some questions concerning the transition from traditional teaching of sociology towards the teaching connected with the sociological intervention are formulated.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.