Labor Relations in Russia: Moving to a “Market” Social Contract?
The paper analyzes contemporary labor relations in Russia as constituting a distinctive ‘market social contract.’ Focusing on market and state policy, labor law, and tripartism, we show how the state has been balancing needs for “social stability” and labor market efficiency. To promote “stability” it protects employment security and prohibits collective protest; to promote efficiency it accommodates pressures for labor market flexibility by tolerating informality. Surveys from 2007-2013 provide some evidence about behaviors, strategies, and attitudes of managers, workers and state officials. The state has so far managed labor market tensions, though inefficiently; the current economic crisis demands new policy responses.
Workers’ Representation in Central and Eastern Europe
Challenges and Opportunities for the Works Councils System
Editor: Roger Blanpain
Guest Editor: Nikita Lyutov
Works council, as a participatory means of regulating the employer–employee relation, is long established in Western European countries, but has failed to take significant root in other parts of the world where it has been tried. This book is the first in-depth exploration of the legal, political, and cultural forces that complicate this transposition. Focusing on Eastern and Central Europe, where the works council system has been most extensively applied and where the evident reasons for its lack of purchase are most telling, the contributors examine the relevant experience, both negative and positive, in twelve countries, with a particular focus on non-union representation of workers.
Many important issues pertinent to workers’ representation in general in a globalized world are covered, including the following:
cooperation and confrontation between trade unions and works councils; insufficient division of competences between the two representative bodies; legal norms concerning both trade union and works councils independence from employers’ interference; need for serious and dissuasive sanctions against creation of employer-controlled (‘yellow’) unions; need for extension to non-union workers of protection from anti-union discrimination; real vs. formal implementation of EU norms in Eastern European Member States; unnecessarily complicated regulation of institutions of representation; lack of protection against dismissal of non-union representatives; responsibility for breach of employers’ obligation to consult and inform; and employers’ lack of legitimacy in the eyes of workers.
There is general agreement among these authors that, as long as human beings spend a serious part of their lives at the workplace, they must be allowed not merely to express opinions about the job but have a real influence on it. Fully aware of the sensitivity of these issues in market economies, the authors’ careful research and call for public discussion open the path to real changes in the existing system, clearly in Eastern Europe but to be much desired elsewhere also. For labour law scholars, practitioners, and policymakers who know that such changes are needed, this book offers directions that, though debatable, are sure to be welcomed.
The paper discusses social aspects of higher education institutions engagement with their regional communities. On the basis of the cases of the Russian Siberian and Southern Federal Universities the author analyzes practices and formats of their interaction with different regional stakeholders as part of the FUs' social function implementation. The FU's capacity to enhance their third mission is assessed. The author suggests a set of indicators to assess universities social activities impact on development of the regions, and puts forward recommendations on building the federal universities capacity for fulfilling their third role. The paper is prepared within the framework of the Ministry of Education and Science project "Organizational and analytical support to the national priority project "Education" on activities aimed at "Development of Federal Universities", carried out by the National Training Foundation.
The chapter analyses legal status of foriegn workers in Russia, pecularities of their labour contract, social insuarance and the role and competence of governing bodies, evaluating control over the foriegn workforce
The book focuses on the new kinds of conflict that arises in the transition to a market economy. Following an editorial introduction, two chapters develop theories from new empirical research into patterns of conflict and forms of trade unionism in Russian enterprises in the transition period. These are folloed by a detailed case study of the development of an independent trade union in one industrial enterprise, and a chapter which explores changes in the status hierarchy of the industrial enterprise. Two chapters then address the much-neglected issue of gender differentiation in the work place and both chapters question the supposed passivity of Russian women workers. The two final chapters address the issue of conflict and change in the external relations of enterprises through case studies of the process of bancruptcy and of conflict insiders and outsiders. Conflict and Change in the Russian Industrial Enterprise is the second volume in the series Management and Industry in Russia, reporning on the results of a unique programme of research into the restructuring of social relations in Russian industrial production.
Some problems of the logical process of forming of the social partnership institute are described in this article. This process is convinced as result of the evolution of professional education system. The basic stages of starting this process are evaluated including the forming of special legislation in Russia. Also the prospects of development of social partnership institute are estimated.
Сorporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainable business is one of the global trends. Abundance of corporate social responsibility ratings allows us to trace the relationship of this parameter with the financial and organizational results of the company. Current studies in this area are based on qualitative methods and small sample of firms that did not allow to give a clear answer about the presence or absence of the correlation. Correlation analysis of a large number of companies allowed us to reveal the relationship between the financial and organizational results of the company and its social responsibility level. One of the most significant results is the identification of a positive correlation between CSR level of revenue and long-term organization.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.