Взаимосвязь выраженности этнической идентичности и аккультурационных установок мигрантов с уровнем их социоэкономической адаптации
This article describes the construction and testing of theoretical model of socio-economic adaptation (SEA) of immigrants, considering psychological factors as basic ones. In the analysis of previous studies acculturation attitudes of immigrants were identified as key psychological factors of SEA for the construction of the theoretical model; length of stay in the country and language skills were used as control variables; the characteristics of ethnic identity were used as predictors acculturation attitudes. Then we carried out the survey of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium for verification of our model. Next we used path analysis for testing of the model on the data obtained. According to the study, we found that (1) acculturation attitudes of immigrants associated to their level of SEA themselves regardless of length of stay in the country and their language skills; (2) high level of SEA of immigrants is positively associated with orientation to the host society (integration and assimilation), and negative associated with orientation to their ethnic group (separation); (3) strong ethnic identification may facilitate the orientation of immigrants to their ethnic group and prevent assimilation.
The collection represents the materials of the 2nd International scientific conference “The theoretical problems of ethnic and cross-cultural psychology” May, 30-31, 2014 held by Smolensk University for Humanities. The participants from Russia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Israel, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Republic of Korea, Ukraine, Uzbekistan shared their methodological and theoretical approaches to such basic scientific issues as transformation of the ethnic identity, cultural influence on the personality, cross-cultural interaction, ethnic conflicts, migration and acculturation psychology, ethnic socialization, policultural formation. The book might be of interest for psychologists, ethnologists, philosophers, anthropologists and other specialists working with ethnic and cross-cultural psychology.
The results of the field research of intergroup attitudes in Southern Russia (N=723) demonstrated that the relationships of the valence and uncertainty of ethnic identity, perceived discrimination and level of religious identity with intergroup attitudes depend on a group status (majority – minority) and the type of settlement (dense-sparse). The perceived discrimination predicts the intolerance of intergroup attitudes among the majority group members whereas, the valence and uncertainty of ethnic identity – among the minorities members. The salience of ethnic identity and high level of religious identity predict intolerant attitudes among migrants with the dense way of settlement, the valence of identity and perceived discrimination predict intolerant attitudes among the migrants with the sparse type of settlement. The willingness to distinguish between people by religion provides the maintenance of their group boundaries and identity in multicultural regions of Russia. The growth of uncertainty of ethnic tolerance provides better adaptation of migrants in multicultural regions of Russia.
Bilingual education including, on the one hand, access to dominating language, and, on the other, - teaching in minority languages or teaching only languages themselves at school is an important part of language politics of a state. In many regions we observe a paradoxical situation: school education does not promote acquisition of a disappearing language, though it is highly valued by members of community. The article considers features of teaching minority languages at school in the Russian Federation on two examples - Nivkh and Kalmyk. Interviews with parents, pupils, former pupils and teachers allow to describe teaching native language at school as a procedure of maintaining identity of community.
The paper analyzes the dynamics of psychological views of Alexander F. Lazurski (1874-1917), the author of one of the first personality theories in the world psychology. In Lazurzki’s work two successive stages can be distinguished, one of them connected with the problem of character as inner individual-typological basis of personality, and the second is characterized by the introduction and intensive elaboration of the idea of attitudes to the outside world as important components of the personality structure. Lazurski’s place in the world psychology of personality is highlighted.
The article presents the results of research life attitude of homeless people. Were investigated following categories of attitudes: attitude toward myself and my life situation, attitude to other people and environment in general. The study used the following methods: unfinished proposals V.B. Olshansky, test of life meaning orientations D.A. Leontiev, the evaluation of five-year intervals A.A. Kronik and group and individual interviews. The data indicate the presence of a number of characteristics inherent in varying degrees all homeless people. The data obtained can be used to build an effective program of psychological re-socialization of homeless people.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.