Налогообложение и социально-правовой статус предпринимателей в России в XVIII – начале XX в.
The article considers the most important legislative acts regulating the entrepreneurial activity in Russia in the 18th-the early 20th centuries, which evolved in response to changing political and economic conditions in the country and were aimed at further liberalization of trade and industrial activities.
The article deals with topical issues of reformation of company legislation with regard to specification of rights and obligations of persons participating in the management bodies of economic societies, strengthening of responsibility of the said persons. The article uses legislation and judicial practice of the USA and Great Britain for the purposes of exposure of the contents of obligations of the persons participating in the management bodies of economic societies, creation of the most balanced status of the said persons.
The chapter analyzes the history of using and understanding the notion of "property" in Russian political thought of the nineteenth century
Shroud of Mary of Tver, the famous monument of Old Russian art? 14 st., was comissioned in honor of important political event, reconsiliation among the princes of Moscow Dom in 1389-1390.
The significance of memoir complex associated with the large Russian historians of the XX century, as an important historical source.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.