Семантико-синтаксические свойства русских конструкций с предлогом под: прямые (пространственные) и переносные (временны́е) употребления
In the paper the modern distributive usage of Russian subject nouns is considered on the basis of corpus data. The author shows that the grammatical rules of choosing the forms of the number of nouns in the distributive usage are not always consistently observed in modern speech. This is due to a number of reasons, including the distinction between referential and non-referential contexts and different pragmatic meanings.
The article discusses the implementation of marked subject pronouns after adversative conjunctions a and no in a parallel Russian-Polish corpus. The analysis compares Russian original sources, where subjective pronoun is obligatory, and their Polish translations (6 parallel texts, 428 entries). The study shows that the conditions for explicit realization of marked contrastive pronouns in pro-drop and non-pro-drop languages are different and likely influenced by the default pattern. Thus, the realization of the contrastive pronoun in Polish correlates with the degree of focus on the subject, which is higher in contexts with the conjunction a (lexemes “a of an abnormal consequence” and “a of comparison”). In these contexts, pronoun is translated into Polish much more often (χ-square, p-value <0.01).).
The work deals with the strategies for predicate agreement to quantified noun groups headed by nouns. In Russian, as in other Slavic languages, predicate agreement with quantified noun phrases allows singular or plural forms of the predicate. As for the sentences with quantifiers-nouns r’ad, polovina, chast’, mnozestvo, three agreement strategy are probable: predicate agrees with the head of noun phrase and takes singular masculine/feminine/neuter or agrees semantically, in plural, or takes default form – singular neuter. The last type of agreement is rare and non-standard. The most frequent is the first type, full grammatical agreement.
The study based on the National Russian Corpus showed that the strategies of predicate agreement with quantifiers-nouns are not identical. The predicate more probable agrees in plural with NP, headed by the word r’ad, than the words polovina, chast’, mnozestvo.
The reasons for the differences in strategies of predicate agreement and the factors of context that influence the choice of predicate, are analysed in the paper.
The investigation of the difference in the agreement strategy implies consideration of the semantic and grammatical properties of quantifiers.
It is shown that some quantifiers have indefinite and abstract meaning (r’ad, mnozestvo), their grammatical properties are limited (the ability to combine with a definition, to be used without dependent word). This behavior differs from usual noun behavior. The “not noun-like” properties should be the main reason for fluctuations in the choice of the form of the predicate, as Corbett has shown [Corbett 1979, Krasovitsky 2010]. The quantifiers of more specific and substantive meaning (polovina, chast’) that behave like nouns, seems to require the full grammatical agreement of predicate.
The dependence of the choice of the predicate form from grammatical gender is discussed in the paper.
The statistical analysis of the influence of the context factors is carried out. The factors of animacy, word order, conjunct subjects. conjunct predicate, the type of predicate, adjectives agreed with quantifier are considered. Some views on the influence of the factors of the context generally accepted in Russian linguistics are refined. The study has shown that a few factors can influence on the choice of the form of the predicate agreed with the words pololvina or chast’– predominantly conjunct noun phrases and animacy. The agreement with mnozestvo is influenced by more factors of context. All the factors are extremely important for the predicate agreement with r’ad
The book includes 64 papers submitted to the International conference in computer linguistics and intellectual technologies Dialogue 2019 and presents a broad spectrum of theoretical and applied research of natural language description, language simulation, and creation of applied computer technologies.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.