This article examines how a crucial aspect of the founding myth of the Russian intelligentsia—the notion of the intelligentsia as “the conscience of Russian society”—was initially formulated in the conceptual language of Hegelian philosophy by the members of Stankevich circle in the late 1830s and early 40s. The aim is to present a more precise account of how specific Hegelian ideas were assimilated and experienced by the Stankevich circle, in order to establish the conceptual interconnection between what will later become the intelligentsia and the Hegelian notions of conscience (Gewissen) and the conscientious community, as formulated in the Phenomenology of Spirit. The distinct contributions of Nikolai Stankevich, Mikhail Bakunin, and Vissarion Belinsky to the emergence of the intelligentsia will thus be conceptualized in terms of their struggle with the inner logical instability and contradictions of conscience.
Dynastic life in medieval Europe was subject to a complex network ofnorms, rules, and prohibitions. Some of these were recorded in writing,although, as a rule, with a signiÞcant delay, when the rules themselveswere about to fall out of use. Others, despite remaining unwritten, regu-lated many aspects of everyday dynastic life, which repeatedly conÞrmedtheir existence. This refers not only to ceremonial and dynastic etiquette,but also to a kind of family predestination compelling various dynastymembers and their immediate circle to take on certain roles and behave incertain ways and not others.
The meaning of the Greek hapax legomenon "λιμβίς" has been specified with the help of its Church Slavonic translation "grivьna" (necklace).
The article focuses on the problem of the fragmentary writing as an essential element of Lidiia Ginzburg's poetics. The fragmentary writing of Lidiia Ginzburg typologically doesn't continue the romanticist tradition, it rather reproduces the principles of Pascal's, Chamfort's and Benjamin's writings.
The article deals with the problem of the relationship between various reading strategies by the censor and ideas about his social role during the pre-reform era of the late 1850s. The authors explore on the one hand the curious history of the journal publication of essays by P.M. Kovalevskij, a nephew of the minister of public education, in 1858, which is reconstructed on the basis of censorship documents, and on the other hand the colourful review by P.A. Efremov. Thus they demonstrate the difficulties I.A. Gončarov as a censor was faced with, who, being forced to remain in the confines of the persistent censorship practices of “petty”, “hypercritical” reading, tried to reform them in accordance with the new circumstances and his literary persuasions.
Abstract: The paper represents the first experience in the study of the semantic changes of the Slavic future perfect on a wide range of old and modern Slavic languages in comparison with typologically similar features from other European languages. The author argues that the Slavic future perfect is a polyfunctional and discourse-oriented gram. The main temporal and modal functions of the periphrasis in the Slavic languages are ‘anteriority in the future/ real condition’, ‘posteriority in the future’ and ‘presumption about an event in the past’. There are also some isolated cases, which show that the periphrasis can even enter the semantic area of irreality and serve as a functional synonym of the conditional mood. Contextual pragmatic inferences play an important role in the semantic development of the future perfect, as they serve as a source of their temporal and modal functions and define two main semantic paths of the Slavic future perfect. The first route presupposes the loss of the resultative component and reinterpretation of the future perfect as a non-resultative predictive future. West-, south-west and western dialects of East Slavic languages share this route: such as the old Czech, some dialects of Slovak, Slovenian, northwestern dialects of Serbo-Croatian and probably Polish and western dialects of Ukrainian. The second path is typical of the eastern part of the south Slavic languages and to some extent of the east Slavic languages (Russian). It leads to the development of the epistemic and evidential uses and to further reinterpretation of the auxiliary as a supposition marker and its expansion to other verbal structures (Bulgarian shte (da), Russian bude). The Russian language in the course of its history shares the features of both south and north Slavic languages, for it develops the epistemic particle bude, on the one hand, but later it loses completely the future perfect gram as well as its relics.
The article is dedicated to the analysis of the concept of presence in the philosophical and non-philosophical texts of the 18th century. This concept is the meeting ground of two semantic fields. On the one hand, the word присутствие ‘presence’ is derived from the Old Church Slavic present-tense participle сы, сѫшти “existing, being’, and signifies God’s presence in the Holy Gifts. On the other hand, присутствие, according to the Russian Academy Dictionary, refers to ‘being jointly at one place’ and ‘сourt sitting’. In addition, one finds a philosophical use of this term, where it is associated with the presence of an object in consciousness (for example, in Descartes, Hume, Locke) as well as with the presence (actual or imaginary) of a person (Adam Smith). Due both to Radischev’s philosophical interests and to biographical circumstances, his works provide abundant material for analyzing the topoi of presence and absence in their different meanings.
The article explores the eluding borderline between the human and the animal resulting from the numerous bestial metaphors in Turgenev’s short story. The framework of the analysis is provided by Bakhtin’s notions of the universal whole and the animal as an elementary being. From the prism of Turgenev’s perception of nature, elementary and universal prove to be closely related with each other. Their interaction determines Gerasim’s attitude to Mumu, defined as care. The opposition between universality and the small world of human power relations, associated with the decrepit Barynja, constitutes the main conflict in the story. It is finally argued that universality also ultimately determines the deeds of the story’s characters, as well as the nature of their “guilt.”
The article offers a new interpretation of A.Blok's poem Retribution, based on the notes made by the poet in the books of his library. The point of departure for the analysis is an image of Copernicus preparing a "revenge" the nature of which needs a clarification. Blok's notes on his books suggest that Copernicus was for him the destroyer of the Middle Ages, and the founder of the Renaissance. Blok's characteristics of the "iron" nineteenth century in the poem reflects his view of the Renaissance as the root of the evils of the modern civilization.
Fear of stars was frequently expressed at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. It was rooted both in apocalyptic fears and in the rejection of modern cosmology current at that time. Besides, morbid fears, of great interest to the contemporary psychiatry, included the so-called “astraphobia”, fear of lightning, gradually re-interpreted as fear of stars, which contributed to the attention to the topic. All of these contexts have to be taken into account when commenting on Andrej Belyj’s “Sphynx” (1905) and “Second Symphony (Dramatical)” (1902).
The paper examines in detail semantics and usage of the Russian substantive "ja" 'Self'. Special attention is paid to the German roots of this usage in the sources of the 18th and 19th centuries.