Checking the possibility of equating a mathematics assessment between Russia, Scotland and England for children starting school
Is it possible to compare the results in assessments of mathematics across countries with different curricula, traditions and age of starting school? As part of the iPIPS project, a Russian version of the iPIPS baseline assessment was developed and trial data were available from about 300 Russian children at the start and end of their first year at school. These were matched with parallel data from representative samples of equal numbers of children from England and Scotland. The equating of the scales was explored using Rasch measurement. A unified scale was easiest to create for England and Scotland at the start and end of their first year at school when children only differ by a half a year in age, and live in adjacent countries with a common language. Although fewer items showed invariance across the three countries, it was possible to link iPIPS scores in mathematics from the start and end of the first year at school across Scotland, England and Russia. The findings of this study suggest that, despite the apparent difficulties, meaningful comparisons of mathematics attainment and development can be made. These will allow for substantive interpretations with policy implications.
By the end of primary school children acquire all the basic literacy and numeracy skills, but proficiency level of these skills varies greatly among children. SAM (Student's Achievement Monitoring) allows us to define the students’ proficiency level accurately. This article gives a brief overview of the toolkit, and describes the results of testing in one region of the Russian Federation. It also investigates the characteristics of the educational environment, which may be associated with the students’ test results.
Child maltreatment is a problem that has longer recognition in the northern hemisphere and in high-income countries. Recent work has highlighted the nearly universal nature of the problem in other countries but demonstrated the lack of comparability of studies because of the variations in definitions and measures used. The International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect has developed instrumentation that may be used with cross-cultural and cross-national benchmarking by local investigators.
The process of transformation, which began in the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX century, as one of the important social problems put forward the question of literacy. The problem of literacy in Russia intensified and became more prominent after the abolition of serfdom in 1861 when peasants were granted personal freedom and some civil rights. The elimination of illiteracy was one of the most important conditions for the further development of the country. The spread of literacy in the Russian Empire in the late XIX-early XX centuries was largely associated with the activities of local self-government bodies. For them one of the most important areas of work was public education. The well-known fact is that the local self-government reform was carried in 1864. In Russian, these local self-government bodies were called Zemstvo.
The technique of acquaintance of students with the difference in the concepts of "multithreading" and "multitasking" in the form of a play is presented. There are the script, props description, the theoretical material, comments on the production.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.