Россия на пути к новой технологической промышленной политике:среди манящих перспектив и фатальных ловушек
The article aims to discuss practical problems and inconsistencies of industrial policy in Russia since 2000, to analyze positive and negative experiences, and to draw lessons, which are essential for the new technology-industrial policy.
The evolution of approaches to industrial policy in Russia is considered, which particularly results in convergence between the innovation and industrial policies. Basic state interest groups are revealed, whose interaction determines the industrial policy design. The authors try to make a comparison between two recent significant industrial policy examples: the automotive industry and the nanoindustry. On this basis some prerequisites for successful policies are revealed.
The following main lessons are drawn:
First. World experience shows that the requirements for industrial policy and its opportunities change significantly with time. Such policies in each country and at a given time need new ideas and solutions; it is extremely difficult to replicate the success of the industrial policies of various countries.
Second. Quite successful industrial policy examples are typically aimed at entering foreign market, becoming globally competitive, and attracting foreign investment. The implementation of industrial policy without definite and sufficient conditions for the free entry and exit of major players and without the participation of foreign partners is doomed only to simulate progress, to have strong informational asymmetry, and to create antagonist images of what is actually happening in economy in the eyes of the society and of the public authorities.
Third. The problem of correctly assessing the scientific and technological potential is of great importance for the technological-industrial policy implementation. Numerous assessments appear to be unreliable since they do not take into account changes in business demand for technology. The tendency to use the legacy of past decades sometimes becomes a political problem, blocking some new approaches and the development of international technology cooperation.
Forth. A negative attitude towards particular policies should not be regarded as a “taboo” against studying the related issues. The fact that for a long time in Russia it has been as if “there were no kind of industrial policy” led to the low quality of both industrial policy and its research.
Keywords: ; science, technology and innovation policy; priority industries; priority technologies; interest groups; state institutions.