The intergenerational transmission of values in national and immigrant families: The role of Zeitgeist
This edited book focuses on immigrant and refugee children around the world and will provide readers with a richer and more comprehensive approach of how researchers, practitioners, and social policymakers can examine immigrant children and youth among ethnic minority families. Also, the chapters will focus on the various methodological advances used to explicitly investigate immigrant children and youth.
The paper presents the results of a study of adaptation of migrant children in schools in Moscow and the Moscow region. We analyze the obstacles that migrant families face when enrolling a child in school and situations they deal with in schools with “socially challenging environment”. We argue that in the eyes of teachers the ethnic origins of children are more important than their citizenship for defining what a “migrant student” is. Both the migrant children themselves and their teachers consider the students’ low proficiency in Russian to be the key obstacle for their adaptation during their first year at school. The lack of classes of Russian as a foreign language, as well as of special training for teachers working in an ethnically diverse classroom also hamper assimilation. Given the significant inflows of migrant children, some schools currently experience changes in the school space. Extracurricular activities become more diverse and often ethnically oriented. Ethnicization of school space is an extension of ethnicization of the urban environment.
The aim of this review is to offer a coherent selection of previous findings related to the pivotal role of teachers at nurturing the moral acquisitions in their students. Four sections are dissecting evidence about teaching efficacy, teaching practice, value transmission and imitative learning. Through these elements, the possibilities of a successful intervention will be discussed and confronted with the unavoidable limitations and controversies.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.