Особенности понятия и содержания компетенций в образовательных стандартах национальных исследовательских университетах (НИУ) и ФГОС ВПО
The article deals with the comparative analysis of the definition and content of competences mentioned in educational standards of research universities and state educational standards of high education. The analysis is conducted on the base of two types of standards: innovative educational standards of National Research University-Higher School of Economics and state educational standards of high education (Bachelor's programme). Two criteria are used for comparison: definition of the notion “competence” and its content. The analysis is held to find out the innovative features of competences according to standards of the research university and to what extent the competences of the research university graduate match socio-economic needs of society.
Author discusses the most important and controversial issues associated with the project of educational standards for high school: a paradigm shift from "vseobuch" to "actionism", the need for teacher retraining, the changing nature of public control over the school and also the question of when new standards should be the implemented. Special attention is paid to the basic curriculum: subjects studied at a basic or advanced level; the need to reduce the number of existing subjects; rationality of the choice of subjects, which are assumed to be compulsory by the standards. Author also notices that one of the strengths of the new standards is moral and personal development of students.
The article is devoted to a new type of educational programs that are formed at the intersection of higher and secondary education. Education as an institute is seen as an instrument of social stratification of society. The authors analyze the major developments of education as an institute, for instance differentiation between of academic and vocational educational programs and the creation of programs of production a “Homo habilis” — a skilled performer. Changes in the vocational education system are considered in the light of the introduction of the new educational standards FSES 2011 (Federal State Educational Standards).
Monograph is devoted to the functional activity of the ministries of the Russian Empire on the creation of normative acts of subordinate regulatory and legislative character. In the work the traditions of the development of historical forms of regulatory rule-making are determined. The place of the ministries in the implementation of the legislative process of the Russian Empire is denoted. The problems of correlation of normative competence of the ministries and of other subjects of law-making activities of the Russian state in 19 - the beginning of 20 century, including the monarch, the State Council and the State Duma are explored.
The publication is addressed to researchers, students, postgraduate students, teachers of high school, all interested in the problems of law, management and lawmaking.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.