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Article

Бедность в России на фоне других стран

Аникин В. А., Тихонова Н. Е.

The paper aims to compare situation of poverty in Russia with the BRIC countries[1] as well as developed countries (Germany and Great Britain), which represent various models of socio-economic development. It is shown that specifics of poverty situation in a particular country can be considered correctly only when the stages in the historical development of a country are taken into account. It is revealed and described in the paper there are three main regimes of structural poverty that are typical for different historical epochs and economic systems – preindustrial, industrial, and post-industrial poverty; the situations with these types of poverty in the countries of interest are also explored. The paper includes a brief overview of the determinants of poverty caused not only by structural reasons, but also by both family and personal circumstances of an individual. It is shown that the specificity of the poverty in Russia compared to other countries is reflected in its exceptional heterogeneity as well as in the unique combination of various types and forms of poverty in Russia, which is mainly depicted by the industrial type of poverty and in higher extent – by the family and personal circumstances of people. It is concluded that heterogeneity of poverty in Russia is determined by still persisting multistructural character of Russian economy and enormous differences in socio-economic development of various regions. Just this clearly apparent heterogeneity, which is reflected in coexisting of poverty regimes that are typical for different historical epochs within particular regions and settlement areas, contributes mainly to the specificity of ‘Russia-like poverty’. The paper also suggests a number of measures to reducing poverty (related to investment, tax, immigration, social and other areas of public policy) that take into account its national specificity