Cities as the Centers for the Modernizatuin of the Economy and Human Capital
Cities as the Centers for the Modernizatuin of the Economy and Human Capital
The principal result of this research is that the valuable skills have a negative and significant effect on alcohol abuse. We found that a higher professional level is consistent with a stronger negative relationship between earnings and alcohol-related behaviors and problems. The explanation of the result is proposed in that the pecuniary losses imposed on an individual by alcohol-related physical inability are positively conditioned by the valuable skills.
Russia has had a high elderly share of its population like the OECD countries, but has had a more turbulent history over the past 100 years, which has caused fluctuations in the capabilities of those turning 60 (measured by education and training, income, enabling environment, medical care, and health status). This article analyses the life experiences and capabilities of five Russian birth cohorts turning 60 over the period 1990–2020. It presents relevant concepts, reviews past research, and evaluates the importance of health factors (health environment, health-related behaviours, medical care, health status) in determining the activities and contributions of older people in Russia. A Human Capabilities of the Elderly in Russia Index (HCERI) with 22 indicators is developed. Russian data are used in the calculation of the HCERI for the cohorts turning 60 in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010 and 2020. The article then presents evaluations of the experiences and changes in capabilities for each of the five selected cohorts of the elderly in four periods of life: Childhood (1–15 years), Young Adult (16–49), Mature Adult (50–59), and Early Elderly (60–69). The implications of changes in the characteristics of the elderly for Russian government policies are discussed.
The modern concept of modernizing Russia somehow reproduce the history of the theory of innovation. The theory of innovation in its development has gone through a least 3 stages. In the first phase (1910 - first half of the 40s) to the forefront issues of understanding the nature of innovation and their role in the development of society over time (long, medium and short periods), the relationship of innovation and long cycles conditions. This period is associated with the names of J.A.Schumpeter, M.I.Tugan-Baranovsky and N.D. Kondratieff. The second stage in the development of innovation theory (second half 1940 - first half of the 1970s) is characterized by the increased role of macroeconomic analysis, in turn, he has at least two substages: the first of which was dominated by the ideas of neo-Keynesians, on the second-neoclassical. The third stage of development of the theory of innovation began in the mid-1970s and proldolzhaetsya to the present. It is characterized by an offensive alternative approach to macroeconomic theory. With a certain degree of conditionality is also possible to distinguish two substages. The first (second half of the 1970s - early 1990s) is characterized by the emergence of new ideas drawn from evolutionary theory, institutionalism (the theory of the firm) and management (innovation management). In the second substage (mid 90s) innovations studied by the methods of systems analysis. The authors are increasingly focused on issues of comparative studies: a comparative analysis of innovation policy in different countries, study the ways and means of forming an effective innovation systems. In the report it is critically considered not only the official point of view, but also M. Porter, K. Ketels work “Competitiveness at the Crossroads: Choosing the Future Direction of the Russian Economy”. Also «The forecast of innovative, technological and structural dynamics of Russian economy till 2030» and RAND Corporation report “The Global Technology Revolution 2020: Trends, Drivers, Barriers, and Social Implications” are analyzed. In this paper institutional preconditions and possibilities of application of the concept of social market economy in the 21st century Russia were analyzed. Basic elements of social market economy are personal liberty, social justice, and economic efficiency.
The article is devoted to the identification of key factors that influence the educational activity of working citizens and the establishment of the role of adults educational programs and vocational education and trainings (AE&VET) in the macroeconomic development of regions and territories. Based on the analysis of the statistical data there was established a correlation between the supplementary education attainment rate and the volume of fixed capital investment per capita in the regions of the Russian Federation, which indicates the leading role of regional investors in the education and training of personnel. In the regions, where the volume of investments is growing, the coverage of the population with the continuous education is also increasing, aiming at the implementation of new technologies at the enterprises being built, which, in its turn, boosts the investment appeal of the territory. The authors formulated and confirmed the hypothesis that due to the launch of the educational programs via investments the labor productivity increases, which, in turn, together with the high correlation coefficients, has a positive impact on the growth rates of wages and gross regional product as a whole. Thus, it was concluded that the differentiation of subjects of the Russian Federation on socio-economic indicators is directly related to the general indicators of the regional AE&VET systems. It was noted that for the effective development of AE&VET at the current stage in Russia, it is necessary to incentive an active participation of all the stakeholders: the worker himself, the employers, the investors, the regional authorities and the government. Considering the lack of the employers’ willingness to finance the workers’ education and training, the authors justify the need to introduce state programs stimulating additional education, including budget certificates. The main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used for the development of the regional AE&VET-systems in the interests of ensuring the economic growth as well as the investment appeal of the territory.
Taking into account the transformation in economic reality towards knowledge economy, it seems logical for company’s intellectual capital to be treated not as a cost but as an investment. Intellectual capital is a resource of creation value equal to physical assets and financial capital. In order for the new system to be consistent it is necessary to define new index of intellectual capital efficiency in the value creation.
Using the theory of efficiency value added by the major company’s resources that are physical capital, human capital and structural capital this paper examines the association with company’s profitability, productivity and market value. Data is drawn from a sample of 56 Russian publicity traded firms from sectors heavily reliant on intellectual capital that are communication systems, instrumentation, pharmacology and financial services. Empirical research is conducted using correlation and linear multiple regression analysis.
People are the focus of the third edition of the OECD Yearbook, which looks at some of the key challenges that have resulted from over five years of global economic turmoil. OECD experts are joined by leaders from government, business, labour, academia and civil society to examine pressing questions.
This paper studies the effect of refugee resettlement on human capital accumulation. The analysis is performed in a growth model with endogenous fertility. I show how refugee resettlement from a more advanced and wealthier economy to a less advanced and less wealthy economy combined with income transfers is Pareto-improving for indigenous populations in both countries. I also derive conditions for the proposed resettlement policy to stimulate human capital accumulation and hence economic growth in both economies.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.