Философия новой духовности: творческий манифест Николая Бердяева
The paper describes the procedure and the results of a study of university students' conceptions of atheism and atheistic personality. The paper starts with a review of the principal sociological and psychological studies of atheism, presenting Russian and foreign research of personality characteristics of atheists and the place of atheism in the social life. The empirical section describes two stages of an empirical study aiming to investigate the conceptions that 1st and 2nd year university students have of personality characteristics and values of a strongly atheistic person. During the first, qualitative stage, 167 students gave open descriptions of an atheistic person that were subsequently content-analyzed. At the second, correlational stage involving a sample of 216 students, associations between the respondents' notions of atheistic personality and their demographic characteristics and religious attitudes were investigated. The results provide an integral portrait of atheist seen by Russian students, which includes both negative and positive characteristics, which are associated with gender and respondents' own religious attitudes.
Philip Smith is one of the main followers of the strong program in cultural sociology. Along with Jeffrey C. Alexander, he is a co-author of a number of works which are constitutive for the tradition itself. Several of those are the strong program in cultural sociology manifesto; some texts which affirm late-Durkheimian program to be productive theoretical resource as well as history of the sociology fact; review of the second English translation of the Elementary Forms by Emile Durkheim. The work is representing a theory-oriented research of French revolution punishment technologies. It involves an analysis of expert and mass discourse concerning the guillotine as a regime's crucial symbolic representation. Cultural sociological reasoning is opposed to Foucault-inspired theoretical tradition which is dominant in criminology and the sociology of punishment.
We have considered core approaches to the problem of fictional objects. For each model authors covered the problem whether everything fictional exists or not in terms of evaluation, separating groups of objects, quantifying or existing in modal worlds. The article contains brief overview of the approaches for dealing with fictional objects and evaluating statements containing fictional objects as their part.
Meaningful life is emotionally marked off. That’s the general point that Johansen (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 44, 2010) makes which is of great importance. Fictional abstractions use to make the point even more salient. As an example I’ve examined Borges’ famous fiction story. Along with the examples of Johansen it provides an informative case of exploring symbolic mechanisms which bind meaning with emotions. This particular mode of analysis draws forth poetry and literature in general to be treated as a “meaningful life laboratory”. Ways of explanation of emotional effect the art exercises on people, which had been disclosed within this laboratory, however, constitute a significant distinction in terms that I have designated as “referential” and “substantive”. The former appeals to something that has already been charged with emotional power, whereas the latter comes to effect by means of special symbolic mechanisms creating the emotional experience within the situation. Johansen, who tends to explain emotions exerted by the art without leaving the semiotic perspective, is drawn towards the “referential” type of explanation. Based upon discussions in theory of metaphor and Robert Witkin’s sociological theory of arts it is demonstrated an insufficient of “referential” explanation. To overcome a monopoly of “referential” explanation of emotional engagement, in particular, in literature, means to break away from the way of reasoning, stating endless references to “something else”, presupposing the existence of something already significant and therefore sharing its effects.
The article discusses the concept of "religious person", the substructure of personality religious rights (religious consciousness and religious behavior and religious relations), analyzes the reasons for the classification types of believers, these foreign and domestic authors.