Гуманизация как утопия
The article briefly discusses the changes associated with parenthood and parental experience. One of the important characteristics of modern parenthood is the diversification of parental experience. There are many different discourses of parenthood, and specific parent needs to determine his or her own position. Educational programs for parents, training and courses help to solve this problem. Internal personal resources are important in the development of such programs, in particular parental self-efficacy is a promising concept for research and practice.
A review of specific style of parenting studies is presented. This parenting style is called “helicopter parenting” in Western scientific literature, it is distinguished by excessive parental care for an adolescent who begins his (her) independent life. The data on the connections of this style with the psychological well-being and academic achievements of adolescents are summarized. It is shown that despite the general dysfunctionality of this style, it’s certain aspects can be positively associated with the adolescents’ well-being. A review of cross-cultural research shows that there are as some universal model of parental behavior that provides an adolescent with a sense of secure attachment in any culture, as significant cultural -specific patterns. In the cases when the dysfunctional (from Western culture point of view) characteristics of parenting are correlated with certain cultural norms, they do not have such a negative impact on the psychological well-being of an adolescent, as in Western culture.
he article considers the main stages in the development of educational programs for parents in Europe, USA and Russia. The authors trace changes in the content of the programs from the emergence of the first schools for mothers, focused on informing parents in the field of hygiene and health issues, till the emergence of parenting trainings for the development of parental competencies and skills. Currently the main trend in the development of educational programs for parents is their orientation to the personality of the parent. The article explains the use of the category of parental self-efficacy for designing educational programs.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.