Integrating theories of psychological needs-as-requirements and psychological needs-as-motives: A two process model
According to Maslow’s (1943) hierarchical theory of needs, people do not become sensitized to “higher” level needs until they have satisfied their “lower” level needs (a moderator hypothesis); until then, they are unprepared to benefit from higher-level satisfactions. But according to the Self-determination theory (SDT) model, high-level psychological needs, when met, are non-contingently beneficial (a main effect-only hypothesis). In two large-N studies of Russian energy companies, we measured low-level need-satisfaction in terms of felt security and felt financial satisfaction, and measured high-level need satisfaction in terms of SDT’s basic needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. In both studies, both the lower level and higher level need-satisfaction sets had strong main effects upon many positive work outcomes, including intrinsic motivation, organizational commitment, and SWB. In Study 2, Maslow’s “prepared to benefit” hypothesis was supported, in that satisfaction of high-level needs had slightly larger effects on outcomes when combined with satisfaction of low-level needs. However this was not found in Study 1. Potentials for integrating the SDT and Maslow need theories are discussed.
This chapter consists of two parts. The first one presents a summary of the selfdetermination theory account of people’s good living and optimal functioning. It highlights three motivational components identified by this theory: psychological needs (needs for autonomy competence and relatedness), aspirations and life strivings, and the continuum of motivational regulation. All these components are considered in relation to people’s eudaimonic happiness and optimal, healthy functioning. The main conclusion of this section is that in order to be happy, people need to regularly and in a balanced way gratify their needs, have strong intrinsic strivings relative to extrinsic aspirations, and be relatively self-determined in their main domains of living and functioning. The second part addresses in more detail the controversial question of the nature of human autonomy as a fundamental condition for people’s thriving and flourishing. It provides a conceptual analysis of this construct, uncovers the mechanisms of its beneficial performance, and addresses a highly discussed question of relationships of autonomy and culture. This section ends with a conclusion on the fundamental importance of human autonomy for people, communities and societies to survive and thrive.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.