Вопросы создания учебных курсов по английскому языку для юридических специальностей
The article considers the main principles underpinning course design with regard to teaching Legal English. Among the issues discussed are the syllabus design, types of interaction activities, as well as preparation of ESP teachers. Much attention is paid to needs analysis issues and the genre approach in teaching Legal English.
The book’s main objective is developing academic writing and speaking skills, namely teaching students to write an academic paper and to prepare an oral presentation on its basis. The book is mainly intended for undergraduate and graduate students of the faculty of law of Higher School of Economics. However, it can be also used by students of other specializations due to the fact that basic principles of academic writing and presenting are universal.
“Academic English for Legal Research” is divided into two parts. The first part “Writing a paper” contains seven units, each devoted to a particular part of an academic paper (abstract, introduction, literature review etc.). The second part “Transforming a paper to an oral presentation” consists of two units devoted to PowerPoint and poster presentations, correspondingly. The book is also provided with additional materials: information about annual conference for law students organised by the department of foreign languages of Higher School of Economics, questionnaire, project title page and contents templates, and samples of projects’ chapters.
Each unit contains both theoretical information and practical exercises. The theory is presented in a concise form, so that students can use the book as a manual for paper writing and presenting. For more information students are encouraged to use additional resources, to which links are provided in every topic. The theoretical part of the book aims at dethroning traditional stereotypes and prejudices of Russian students considering academic writing in English as well as making them aware of typical mistakes that were identified during several years of teaching a variety of Academic English courses in Higher School of Economics. Such a focus on Russian students makes the book different from those published by British and American authors and helps to bridge the gap between Russian and English academic writing conventions.
Practical exercises are based on the material of academic articles from legal journals and fourth year students’ projects that were completed by law students of Higher School of Economics as a part of their final state examination in English in 2015. The tasks are aimed at recognizing and using both the academic vocabulary and structural principles of academic paper creation and presentation. The exercises comprise such tasks as identifying strong and weak sides of given samples, correcting mistakes, different matching activities, creative tasks. The last task of each unit suggests students to write a part of their own research and provides a checklist of points to consider while writing, thus, after studying the book students should be able to present a draft of their research work.
The book can be used both in class and individually. It can be suggested as an additional course book for fourth year students to help them prepare for their English examination.
Academic environment constraints, i.e. limited amount of EFL hours for non-majors, call for a careful consideration of the stakeholders' needs in curriculum design in higher education context of a non-English speakign country. Tailoring an EFL course to those needs lands itself into an integrated program, comprising several study areas. This article discusses a case of syllabus design, combining a traditional EFL component, academic skills training and major-specific content (Country Studies for International Affairs majors). The author discusses the application of a solf systems methodology (SSM) in the academic environment.
The article analyses the difficulties brought about by the introduction into the curricula of many Russian universities a new educational practice – Academic Writing in English. The difficulties are grouped into the following categories: the ones which are rooted in the old Soviet-Russian lingua - didactic tradition of teaching foreign languages; the ones which are connected with a low level of prestige of research work among students and some of their teachers; the ones which are specific to a particular educational establishment, and as the survey reveals, they are mostly caused by the complicated nature of the subject Academic Writing. The algorithm of action suggested for the syllabus design includes the analysis of objective and subjective difficulties; analysis of the needs of the target audience; and the introduction into the teaching process specifically designed for the course materials. Survey results prove that following the algorithm has significantly raised the students’ level of satisfaction with the difficult course. The measures, aiming to improve the course, have facilitated the attainment of the course goal, saving time and effort for students and their teachers
This article aims at sharing the results of the British Council partner project English for Academics implemented in Russia in 2012-2015. The need for this project was identified in the Baseline Study having indicated the necessity to design a course for university staff in order to develop their foreign language communicative competence and to stimulate their participation in international projects. The concept of the course is based on the needs analysis conducted by the British Council; the methodological principles of the book are conducive for meeting the needs of the target group. The participants of this project describe the project stages, the concept of the book they have developed, and illustrate the principles with sample activities from the course. We demonstrate how the understanding of learners’ needs and characteristics helps select appropriate pedagogical principles to meet these needs and to exploit the characteristics. Based on the results of a piloting stage we conclude that the course is an effective means of developing academics’ language proficiency and, consequently, enables university instructors and researchers to participate in international projects.
Based on a survey of 150 students at several universities, the paper analyses the authenticity of materials and authenticity of their use in ESP classes.
This research studies professional and non-professional levels of academic discourse by analyzing cognitive metaphor models in the English written texts produced by Russian students with different competence in economics. The results of comparative analysis of specific features in metaphor models in two types of academic discourses – professional and non-professional – reveal the difference how students at different levels of study develop their professional competence in their core curriculum disciplines. At an early stage students predominantly use external associations in metaphors, and at a later stage – internal/personal verbal associations. The research results might be significant for more targeted identification of ESAP content.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.